Definitions of common terms used in digital marketing and analytics


A/B TESTING – This is testing a new technique (A) of online marketing (whether it be PPC or SEO) against a control (B) to see if the new technique is more effective.
Above The Fold – The content that can be seen on a screen without having to scroll down. In Email Marketing, this refers to the portion of an email that can be viewed in the preview pane.
Accessibility – An approach to web design where different browsers and settings are taken into account, ensuring that all people will be able to view the site.
Account Manager – The special breed of person who liaises between the client and the agency.
Acquisition – Refers to the point in time when a visitor to a website becomes a qualified lead or customer.
Action – A specified task performed by a user, which results in an affiliate being awarded commission.
Active Server Pages – ASP. Microsoft’s server-side technology for dynamically-generated web pages. ASP of this variety is marketed as an add-on to IIS.
Active Verb – An action word, usually used in a call to action (CTA) and tells a visitor what to do.
Ad Space – The allotted space on web pages for Online Advertising.
AdCenter – See “Microsoft adCenter.”
AdSense – Google AdSense is a pay-per-click advertisement application which is available to bloggers and Web publishers as a way to generate revenue from the traffic on their sites. The owner of the site selects which ads they will host, and AdSense pays the owner each time an ad is clicked.
ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. ADSL is a high speed method of accessing the Internet.
AdWords – The pay-per-click (PPC) search-engine marketing (SEM) program provided by Google. It facilitates targeting adverts to specific searches, and the adverts appear above and to the right of the organic searches.
AFAIK – As far as I know.
Affiliate – Also known as “publishers”. Affiliates market another merchant’s products on their site and earn revenue for successful referrals to that merchant’s website.
Affiliate Forum – An online community of affiliates where members can read or post topics and articles related to Affiliate Marketing.
Affiliate Marketing – An agreement between two websites. The affiliate agrees to feature content on their site that aims to drive traffic to another merchant’s site. In return the affiliate site receives a percentage of the sales generated by this traffic.
Affiliate Merchant – The merchant fills the role of the advertiser in an Affiliate Marketing relationship. The merchant implements a tracking system, provides affiliates with the campaign graphics and pays them.
Aggregator – An Internet-based tool or application which collects and curates content (often provided via RSS feeds) from many different websites and displays it in one central location. Google Reader is one popular example of an aggregator.
AJAX – Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a web development technique for creating interactive web applications. AJAX increases usability and speed by ensuring the web page doesn’t have to reload each time a change is made by the user.
Akismet – A widely used application for blogging platforms, such as WordPress, that functions as a filter for trapping link spam, comment spam and other forms of undesirable user-generated content.
Alerts – Notifications that can be set up for various search terms, events or website actions. These are often sent to an individual via email, e.g., whenever a company/product name appears on the Internet in newly published content. Alerts are usually sent to an individual via email.
Alexa Internet – A website and toolbar that tracks the number of hits (visitors) to a particular website and ranks them based on this amount.
Alexa Rank – A number indicating how popular a website is in comparison to other sites, based on information returned by the Alexa Toolbar and Quirk SearchStatus. The number is the index of a given site in long ordered list of popularity, the most popular site at index 1, the second most at index 2 and so on.
Algorithm – An algorithm is a mathematical, computational or statistical method that takes a number of variables into account to output a single, quantifiable number that is a function of all of the variables. A good example of a commonly used algorithm is the one used by Google to determine which pages should rank more highly on the SERPs. Another example is the algorithm used by BrandsEye to take into account tagged and weighted criteria to calculate a single Reputation Score.
Algorithm – Mathematical rules and calculations a search engine uses to determine the rankings of the sites it has indexed. Every search engine has its own unique, proprietary algorithm that gets updated on a regular basis. Google’s famously has more than 200 major components.
ALT Attribute – A line of text used to describe the content associated with a non-text based file, typically an image. A traditionally strong correlation exists between use of keywords in these attributes and high rankings for the pages that contain them.
Alt Text – An Alt Tag is used in HTML to attribute a text field to an image on a webpage. Normally with a descriptive function, this tag tells a user what an image is about and displays the text when the image is unable to load.
Analytical CRM – Software that assists a business in building customer relationships and analyses ways to improve them.
Anchor Text – The non-URL text that is displayed in a hyperlink. For example, in this hyperlink to Fathom’s website, “Fathom’s website” is the anchor text. Careful use of anchor text can produce both reader and SEO benefits.
Anchor Text – The visible, clickable text in a link.
Animated GIF – A GIF is a bitmap file format often used on the World Wide Web. An animated GIF is a series of individual GIF frames joined together to create an animation. It is perhaps the easiest way to create and view simple animations.
Antivirus – Software created to detect and neutralise malicious software.
Apache – An open source web server. Apache HTTP Server is the most popular web server in use today.
App – Short for application, an app performs a function on your mobile phone or computer.
APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (API) – A document interface that allows software applications to interact with other applications. For an example the Twitter API.
ARG – Alternative Reality Game. A game that takes place in both the real world and in a fantasy world, usually involving an online component. – This search engine formally known as Ask Jeeves was founded by Garrett Gruener and David Warthen. Ask Jeeves allowed users to ask questions in everyday language. As at Google, MSN and Yahoo! began indexing pages faster, Ask Jeeves suffered. Though its user base is still significantly smaller than those of the big three, is still a popular engine.
ASP – Abbreviation of Application Service Provider, essentially a business that provides computer-based services to customers over a network.
Astroturfing – Covert and manipulative use of word-of-mouth advertising or viral marketing.
Automated Significant (ORM) – Management Mentions that have a high credibility or extreme sentiment (positive or negative) are automatically grouped for further attention.
Autoresponder – A program designed to send an automated response to incoming emails or text messages.
Avatar – A graphical representation of a real person, often seen in user profiles for online forums, social networks or chat/instant-message services. Avatars can be two-dimensional images, representing the author of a blog or microblog; or they can be three-dimensional figures, occupying space in a virtual world, such as Second Life.


Back Button – This button, which is located at the top left of a web browser, allows you to go back to the previous web page you were on.
BACK LINK – What SEO attempts to encourage, a link to a specific website from another. It increases the websites standing when evaluated by a webcrawler such as PageRank, in essence telling it that the website must be popular. However, links from untrustworthy websites tell the search engine that perhaps this specific website is untrustworthy and this is therefore undesirable.
Backlink – General classification for all the links on the pages that will take a user to a specific web page. Also known as inbound links. The number of backlinks influences PageRank, making relevant links of this type important.
Ban – Removal from a search index when a page and/or entire website is deemed inappropriate for a given engine’s results, usually on a temporary basis until the offending site corrects itself.
Bandwidth – The amount of data a connection is capable of moving. Generally measured in bits per second.
Banner – An online advertisement in the form of a graphic image that appears on a web page.
Banner Ad – Graphical image or small animation file embedded within a Web page and used for advertising, often containing a link to other sites, products, etc.
Banner Exchange – A symbiotic advertising initiative whereby the businesses involved promote each other’s services and websites on an exchange rather than a paid basis. Also known as link exchange.
BarCamp – An informal un-conference which brings techs, creatives and geeks together – this is where all the good stuff happens – keep an eye on the Quirk site for the next event in your area.
Bebo – Blog Early, Blog Often. A social network based on the same format as Facebook or MySpace. There are numerous applications and add-ons that users can use to enhance its functionality.
BEHANCE – An online design portfolio-based community recently acquired by Adobe, developers of industry-standard design software such as Photoshop and Illustrator.
Benefit – The positive outcome for a user that a certain feature provides.
BITLY – A free URL shortening application. They also provide analytics on your links.
Black Hat – A term coined by the SEO industry to define the unethical techniques some search engine optimisers use to improve their sites ranking. These practises include keyword stuffing, hidden text and duplication of content. The immediate results may be astounding but the long term results are detrimental as Black Hat SEO techniques are a no-go with search engines. Employ these tactics at your own peril.
BLACK/WHITE HAT SEO – White hat activities are any technique to increase a websites rank that follows search engines rules. More generally, this means ethically promoting a website without resorting to spam and other such ‘black hat’ activities. The idea of Black hat/White hat comes from hacking, where white hats were benevolent hackers and Black hats were disruptive and unethical. We always use authentic and ethical ‘white hat’ techniques here.
Blacklists – Blacklists are lists of IP addresses belonging to organisations that have been identified as spammers. The ISPs use these lists to filter out spam and block messages from these IP addresses from reaching their final destination.
BLEKKO – A relatively new search engine that aims to better Google. It claims to be spam-free, and it also contains functionality that makes SEO easier.
Blip – A “blip” can refer to a music or video clip which a user has posted via the popular media hosting sites, and
Blocking – A.k.a Filtering. Sometimes emails are prevented from reaching their final destination because of a filter that has been put in place. These filters are usually put in place to block spam.
Blog – Also known as a web log. A blog is a type of website that allows users (bloggers) to post entries on different topics and lets readers comment on these posts. Blog types range from being personal diaries to news commentaries. Blogs are easy to update, encourage repeat visits, create fresh content and natural links. If your company is not involved in the blogosphere – you’re lost.
BLOG – An online journal, written by individuals/groups of people/ companies. A blog can be about any topic the person wishes to write about whether it be a documentary, description of events, video logs etc. A blog is organised in reverse-chronological order with the earliest entry at the top.
Blog – Short for “weblog,” this is a special kind of website for self-publishing, often done by the owner of the site (the “blogger”), but sometimes by a committee of authors who rotate by day, for example. Blogs typically record and categorize all content updates by date/time and topic for easy tracking by readers. The posts appear on a blog’s homepage in reverse-chronological order (thus the original term, “weblog”).
BLOG – Short for weB LOG, a blog is a website that is maintained by one user, or a group of users, where the users post updates. Some are used as online diaries, but others may be corporate. A company that maintains a blog gives it a personable front for the potential clients, and it also maintains an interesting online presence that can be used for SEO.
Blog Comment – A facility whereby users can remark on or provide feedback on a particular post. Some individuals and companies have abused this system by automatically spamming blog comments with links to their websites, forcing many comment systems to now be moderated or by invitation only.
BLOGGER – A person who writes a blog.
Blogger – An individual who generates content for blogs, either personal or professional. Reasons for being a professional blogger are many: delivering timely commentary; showcasing expertise; engaging with audiences and fellow bloggers; and building personal brands. Some professional bloggers generate levels of esteem and prestige equivalent to that of journalists, an occupation which has also found value in blogging for the above reasons.
BLOGOSPHERE – A term given to the sum of all blogs on the internet.
Blogosphere – The world of blogs, bloggers and blog posts. The blogosphere has evolved rapidly since its inception and is destined to grow even more – start blogging! In fact visit our blog and get to it!
Blogroll – A collection of links to other blogs. It is usually found on the Home Page of most blogs.
Blogroll – A list of recommended or similar blogs that a blogger lists on his or her own blog as a resource for the audience.
BLOGROLL – A traditional method for bloggers to list all the other blogs they have read. The popular blogging service WordPress have retired the blogroll in recent updates.
Bluejacking – The anonymous sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers.
Bluetooth – A short distance wireless transfer protocol for connecting devices.
Boilerplate – Standard wording about an organisation that usually appears at the foot of a press release.
Bookmarking – Saving the web address of a web page or website so that it may be easily found again. Bookmarks can be managed with a browser or with an online tool. See Social Bookmarking.
Bookmarking – The act of saving a website address for future reference. This can be done individually on an Internet browser, such as Mozilla Firefox, or through a dedicated social bookmarking site, such as Social bookmarking allows visitors to easily share groups of bookmarks with each other across computers regardless of browser, as well as comment on and rate the stored content. Other social bookmarking sites include Digg, StumbleUpon and Mixx.
Bookmarks – The list of all websites you have bookmarked are your bookmarks. These are called “favourites” in Internet Explorer.
Bounce Rate – In Google Analytics, this refers to the percentage of people that do not progress beyond the entry page within a certain time limit.
Bounce Rate – Refers to the percentage of a given page’s visitors who exit without visiting another page on the same site. This term is often used in e-commerce in conjunction with merchandise shopping carts. Also known as “abandonment rate.”
Bounces – The number of emails that were unable to reach their final destination due to a hard or soft bounce.
Brand – Distinctive name or trademark that identifies a product or manufacturer.
Brand Awareness – A measure of how quickly a brand is recognised or called to mind.
Brand Evangelist – One who lives and breathes a brand, and is capable of spreading the word far and wide. Compare Brand Terrorist.
Brand Terrorist – One who attacks a brand, normally an industry rival or dissatisfied customer. Compare Brand Evangelist.
Breadcrumb Links – Links, usually on the top of the page, that indicate where a page sits within the hierarchy of the website.
Broken Links – Links to pages which no longer exist or have been moved to a different URL without redirection. These links usually serve pages with the “404 error” message (see “404 error”). Incidentally, most search engines provide ways for visitors to report on broken or “dead” links.
Browser – An application used to access the Internet. Popular browsers include Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari. See Web Browser.
Business to Business (B2B) – Stands for Business to Business. When businesses sell products/services to other businesses and not to consumers.
Business to Consumers (B2C) – Stands for Business to Consumers. When businesses sell products/services to consumers.
Buzz – Online excitement and word of mouth surrounding a certain brand or incident.


Cache – A temporary copy of a collection of data. If accessing the original data is proving to be resource heavy (time-consuming), then users can access the cache bypassing having to reload the original data.
CAD – Computer Aided Design. This is the process of using a computer as a tool to assist with the generation of graphics and designs.
Call To Action (CTA) – A phrase written to motivate the reader to take a specific action and is usually situated at the bottom of a page. These actions can include signing up for a newsletter, contacting the company or booking a holiday.
CAMPAIGN – A campaign is made up of marketing messages with a specific aim. A campaign may aim to raise awareness, raise funds or increase the sales of a product.
Campaign Strategist – The clever mind who is responsible for making the objectives of a campaign a reality, by any means necessary.
CANONICAL – If there are multiple versions of similar pages, the canonical rel tag tells the WebCrawler that the page linked is the definitive version. Each non-canonical page must link to the canonical version with this link.
CAN-SPAM – Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003. The U.S. law that regulates commercial email.
CAPTCHA – Completely Automated Turing Test To Tell Computers and Humans Apart. A program that asks a user to complete a simple test to prove they are human and not a computer. The most common test is to retype a distorted image of numbers and text into a box that a computer would be unable to read.
Categories – Ways to organize content on a site, especially blogs. One typical way to store both current and archival blog posts is by an alphabetical list of topical categories.
Category (ORM) – Gives you and idea of how many phrases in a particular Category, BrandsEye ORM has picked up, as well as letting you know the shift in your reputation score as a result of the mentions found for that Category.
CGM – Consumer Generated Media. Another term for social media.
CIRCLES – Groups of friends on Google + network. Circles can be categorised into colleagues, family etc. You can share certain information with certain groups if you wish.
Citizen Journalism – The act of news and information being collected and disseminated by the public. Sometimes called public or participatory journalism. Also see Consumer Generated Media.
Click Fraud – The act of generating invalid clicks on an advert. Deliberate invalid clicks may be generated by competitors to waste the media budget of an advertiser or by site owners hosting the advert in order to increase commission from the clicks.
Click Paths – The pattern of clicks as well as the entry and exit points of a user’s interaction with a website.
Click Tracking – Using scripts to track the number of clicks it takes to enter or exit a website. This can also be used to shield a link from being picked up as a backlink to another site.
Clicks and Mortar – A business that has both online trading capabilities and physical stores located offline.
Click-through – The number of times a link was clicked by a visitor.
Click-through Rate – Expressed as a percentage, this refers to the total clicks on a link divided by the number of times that link was shown.
Click-Thru Rate (CTR) – The percentage of people who actually click on a link (e.g., in an email message or sponsored ad) after seeing it.
Client-side – Transactions that take place before information is sent to the server.
Cloaking – A prohibited practice of tricking a search engine into indexing different content than the user actually sees. In essence, it is serving one version of a page to search engines (for intended SEO benefit) and another to humans. Often the content is entirely unrelated to the actual topic/theme of the rest of the site.
CLOAKING – What a user sees on a webpage and a WebCrawler sees are actually very different. A computer does not see pictures or text in the way we do, and users do not see the code that produces these pictures or arrangements of text. Google advises that they should not differ too much, meaning that there should not be hidden text or links that the user does not see, which would be there to alter a search engines ranking of the website. Hiding things from the user like this is known as ‘Cloaking’ and is generally a ‘black hat’ technique, and search engines penalise these websites.
Cluetrain Manifesto – A set of 95 theses organised as a call to action for businesses operating within a newly connected market place.
CMS – Content Management System – A nifty script or program for maintaining websites. If you have a really hot CMS program you can almost do anything and you no longer have to depend on anyone else when it comes to maintaining your site.
Collaboration – In reference to Web 2.0, this concept states that shared contributions of large numbers of individuals, using social media tools, is a main driver of quality content on the Internet.
Collaborative CRM – Umbrella term for all the interactive options for serving customers. It is people-based customer support that includes: collaborative browsing, Web-based text and voice chat, desktop sharing, application sharing, file transfer and phone support.
Collective Intelligence – The idea that a community or group of individuals is more efficiently capable of higher thought processes than an individual. Social-media applications of this concept include online communities which provide user-created informative content, such as Wikipedia.
COMMENT – An online response given by users as either an answer or reaction to a post or message.
Comments – Comments are content generated by users in response to an initial publication, most notably blog posts. These are usually posted below the blog entry, and can often be vehicles for creating advanced levels of discussion that increase the lifespan of blog posts. Comments are also typically associated with news articles, videos, media-sharing sites, and Facebook posts.
Commission – The bounty paid by a merchant to an affiliate when the affiliate makes a successful referral.
Common Page Elements – Items which appear on every page of a website.
Common Short Codes (CSC) – Stands for Common Short Codes. Users send messages to shortened numbers, usually to get something in return, like a competition entry for example.
Congoo – Congoo is a news-sharing social network that offers free subscription content across hundreds of broad and niche topics.
CONNECTIONS – A term used on LinkedIn to describe the people you are associated with.
Consumer Generated Media – This refers to online information that could be published anywhere, from blogs to forums and even on Twitter. Consumer generated media is highly valued among individuals looking for information about which brands or companies are trustworthy. It therefore plays a significant role in building and destroying online reputations. The increasing amount of consumer generated media available and the impact that it has on the opinions of other consumers has created a need for Online Reputation Monitoring and Management tools such as BrandsEye.
Consumer to Business (C2B) – Stands for Consumer to Business. When consumers sell products/services to businesses.
Consumer to Consumer (C2C) – Stands for Consumer to Consumer. When consumers sell products/services to other consumers.
Content – Any text, image, video, audio, app or other material published on the Internet for audience consumption.
Contextual Advertising – Advertising on content websites rather than on search sites. Where adverts are placed is based on the content of the website. For example, on a running magazine website, adverts might be for a running shoe brand.
Contextual Link Inventory – An extension of search engines where they place targeted links on websites they deem to have similar audiences.
Conversion – A desired action taken by a website visitor, such as making a purchase, registering for an event, subscribing to an e-newsletter, completing a lead-gen form, downloading a file, etc.
Conversion Cost – See “cost-per-acquisition (CPA).”
Conversion Funnel – A defined path that visitors should take to reach the final objective.
Conversion Optimisation – Two phase process which is made up of first analysing the collaborative effect of your eMarketing efforts and then optimising their effect to turn visitors into customers. The aim is to ultimately make your site more effective.
Conversion Rate – The percentage of visitors to a website that perform a desired action, such as making a purchase or filling out a form. For example, if 30 visitors out of 100 subscribe to a newsletter, the conversion rate is expressed as 30%.
Conversion Rate – This is the percentage of visitors to a site or ad who actually take a further action, like buying a product or filling out a survey. For example, if your primary goal is to collect survey data through your site, and 20 people visit it, but only 5 people complete the survey, you have a conversion rate of 25%.
Cookies – A small text file that is stored on an end-user’s computer and allows websites to identify that user, store unique variables and allow the website owner to construct a profile for that user.
Copywriter – A commercial writer. An SEO copywriter is specialist who is skilled at writing for the optimised Web.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) – The ethical behaviour of a company while serving to improve the welfare of their employees as well as the local community.
Cost-Per-Acquisition (CPA) – Represents the ratio of the total cost of a pay-per-click (PPC) campaign to the total number of leads or customers, often called “CPA” or “conversion cost.”
Cost-Per-Click – A method of paying for targeted traffic. For a fee, sites like Google or Facebook direct traffic to your site. You agree to pay a set amount for every click.
Count – Raw figures captured for analysis. These are the most basic web analytics metric.
CPA – Cost Per Action or Acquisition. Refers to the cost of acquiring a new customer. The advertiser only pays when a desired action is achieved. Sometimes called cost per acquisition.
CPC – Cost Per Click. Refers to when an advertiser only pays when their ad is clicked upon, resulting in a visitor to their site. This is typically from a search engine in Pay Per Click search marketing.
CPL – Cost Per Lead. Commission structure where the affiliate earns a fixed fee for a lead sent to a merchant.
CPM – Cost Per Mille. In Pay per Click advertising, CPM refers to Cost per 1000 ad impressions. An advertiser pays each time 1000 impressions of their ad are shown.
CPM – This is the “cost-per-thousand” views of an advertisement. Often, advertisers agree to pay a certain amount for every 1,000 customers who see their ad, regardless of conversion rates or click-thrus. The “M” in “CPM” is derived from the Latin word for 1,000 (mille).
Crawler – An automatic function of some search engines that index a page, and then visit subsequent pages that the initial page links to. As the cycle continues over time, search engine crawlers or “bots”/“spiders” can index a massive number of pages very quickly.
Creative Commons – This is the alternative to traditional copyrights. It allows publishers to licence their content in a variety of ways that are not as restrictive as traditional copyrights. Usually, these licences allow for content to be duplicated and shared as long as this is in accordance with the terms of the licence.
Credibility (ORM) – The Credibility score is also attached to all relevant mentions of your brand. This score is there to determine the level of influence that a mention might have according to who wrote it and where the mention appeared. The Credibility score is rated on a scale of 0 to 10 where 0 is an unknown and obscure to 10 who would be a well known authority or personality in the field.
Credibility Analysis (ORM) – In ORM, distribution of the credibility assigned to mentions is plotted on a graph, allowing you to understand the influence that your consumers have on your reputation and who you should engage with.
CRM – Customer Relationship Management.
CRO – Conversion Rate Optimisation. The conversion rate is how many people go from just browsing to making a purchase, or becoming a customer. We don’t need to tell you a high conversion rate is desirable! Conversion Rate Optimisation means designing both the PPC adverts and the specifics of the website so to maximise viewer usability and hence the conversion rate. See our Conversion Rate Optimisation page for more details.
Cross Marketing – Marketing other products or services to an existing customer. Cross marketing enhances the ability of generating further sales. Also known as Cross Selling.
Crowdsourcing – Harnessing the skills, talents and ideas of a broader community, usually through social media.
Crowdsourcing – In the context of social media, this is a process used by many social bookmarking sites where individuals are allowed to vote on news stories and articles to determine their value and relevancy within the site. Related to other social media concepts such as collaboration and collective intelligence, it can also be a research tool. Due to its significant popularity, this new word famously has entered standard English dictionaries in recent years.
CSS – Cascading Style Sheets. This is a language used to describe how an HTML document should be formatted. Cascading Style Sheets provide the ability to separate the layout and style of a web page from the data or information.
CSV File – Abbreviation for Comma Separated Values file, used for databases.
CTR – An abbreviation for “click-thru rate.”
Custom Reporting (ORM) – BrandsEye also allows for fully customisable graphs and reports to be generated. These correspond to particular conditions which the user selects (such as authors credibility, sentiment, mention’s source as well as websites traffic, PageRank etc.) Reports cantered on the variables of your choice can be created, ensuring that you find out exactly what you need to know about your brand.
Customer – A person who buys or uses goods or services. A person with whom a business must deal.
Customer Life Cycle – The progressive steps a customer goes through when purchasing, using or considering a product or service.
Cybersquatting – Cybersquatting occurs when a domain name that contains the name of a well-known brand/subject/trademark i.e. is purchased with no intention of development, but rather to be sold off to the highest bidder.


Dark Traffic – Referral traffic to a web site where the source cannot be identified. Examples include traffic from URLs shared through email, from search engine Duck Duck Go, secure sites that don’t collect information on users.
Social is the source that’s most affected by dark traffic and certain mobile apps, which may not send referral data.
Dashboard – Any area of administrative control for operating applications, especially social media settings, blogging software, and user profiles for websites that offer multiple customization options.

Data Mining – The process of analyzing large amounts of data for patterns. This process can be used to predict buying habits, credit card purchases and cross sale capabilities.
Database – In Email Marketing, the database is the list of prospects to whom emails are sent and can contain additional pertinent information.

dCPM (dynamic cost per mille) – DCPM works the same as a CPM campaign in that you set a bid that is a flat price per 1000 impressions and add a CPC or CPA goal to optimize toward. The important difference is that with CPM, the ad server can only pay the exact bid amount for each impression, regardless of the goal. With dCPM and with the advent of RTB exchanges, each ad call can be evaluated in real time to determine what the impression is worth, and the DSP can bid that price. In the end, it will average out to the set bid price or just under.
Dead Link – A link to a page that no longer exists. Search engine spiders check these types of links and eventually eliminate them from search engine results. Also see Link Rot.
Deep Linking – Deep linking exists when a user clicks on a link and is taken to a page that is not the homepage, but another page that exists within the site’s structure. The landing page where the user is taken to is usually one that is not easily found within the site. – A popular social bookmarking site which allows members to share, store and organize their favorite online content.
Dell Hell – The term used by Jeff Jarvis when his Dell computer malfunctioned and he had a hard time getting appropriate customer service.

DMP (data management platform) – DMP is a centralized system that allows you to create target audiences based on a combination of in-depth first-party and third-party audience data, accurately target campaigns to these audiences across third-party ad networks and exchanges, and measure with accuracy which campaigns performed the best across segments and channels to refine media buys and ad creative over time.

DSP (demand side platform) – DSP companies allow advertising clients to buy digital media on several different selling systems or exchanges through one interface.

Desktop Support – Like a systems administrator, the Desktop Support team manage technical errors from broken printers to network glitches.
Device Detection – The automated process of sorting traffic depending on the device used for access.
DIGG – An online news website which has a unique algorithm. The site lets its readers submit articles and also allows people to vote whether or not they liked the article. The articles with the highest number of votes appear at the top of the page while the less popular stories move down the page. Not as popular as it once was, Digg is a tech-centric social bookmarking and crowdsourcing site with a large, devoted audience that famously directs server-busting traffic to websites that have articles linked from its popular top rankings.
Direct Marketing – Marketing methods, such as mobile, which directly reaches the individual in the target audience.
Directory – An index of websites where the listings are compiled by hand, rather than by a crawler. Whether general or niche-oriented, the best of these sites are structured, reviewed and regularly updated by humans with transparent editorial guidelines. Directory websites provide an ordered listing of registered websites in different categories. They are similar to an e-version of Yellow Pages. Yahoo! and Excite are the best known examples of directories.
Directory (ORM) – An alphabetical or classified listing of websites, blogs, products and services and other data for a particular industry i.e. eMarketing directory of suppliers.
DMOZ – Also known as the Open Directory Project, this continually expanding directory is run by volunteers. It claims to be the largest (and is one of the most famous) of the human-edited directories.
DNS – Domain Name System. DNS resolves a domain name into an IP address.  Stands alternately for “Domain Name Service,” “Domain Name Server,” and “Domain Name System”: the DNS is a name service which allows letters (and numbers) that constitute domain names to be used to identify computers instead of numerical IP addresses.
DOM – Document Object Model. A web standards approach to representing HTML and XML documents as objects.
Domain Name – The name of a server that distinguishes it from other systems on the World Wide Web. Quirk’s domain name is
DomainKeys – An email authentication system designed to verify the DNS domain of an email sender and the message integrity.
Doorway Page – A low-content page traditionally created expressly for the purpose of ranking on a search engine. Usually very keyword-heavy and user-hostile, most search engines now frown on these pages.
Doorway Page/Domain – These are specially assembled pages that feature keywords for particular product searches. These often redirect visitors to a home page.
DOS – Disk Operating System. A disk manager and program that allows the user to interact with the computer and supervise and control the running of programmes.
DOS Attack – Denial of Service Attack is an activity where millions of computers attempt to repeatedly contact a single computer (victim). Due to the volume of activity the victim’s computer is unable to cope and subsequently crashes.
Dotcom – An enterprise that only conducts business online. These enterprises do not have physical stores – the products/services they offer are only sold online. Compare Clicks and Mortar.
Double Opt-in – The act of getting subscribers to confirm their initial subscription via a follow up email asking them to validate their address and hence opt-in again.
Download – Transferring files from one computer to another. When you are online you are downloading files from a website server to your PC.
DRIBBBLE – A community for designers to upload snapshots of their work.
Dynamic Keyword Insertion – In paid search advertising, this allows keywords used in searches to be inserted into advert copy.
Dynamic Parameter – The elements of a URL that are dynamically generated.
Dynamic Site – Content such as text, image and form fields on a web page that change according to each user’s needs and information.


eCPA (effective CPA) – Similar to the CPM model, the eCPA reflects the total cost each day divided by the number of leads.

eCPM (effective CPM) – Since most buys are a mix of cost-per-thousand impressions (CPM) and CPC, the eCPM answers the question: If I buy a CPC campaign, what would I have paid if I bought it on a cost per thousand (CPM) basis? It’s used to compare whether a CPM or CPC buy was actually more cost effective. To calculate: campaign cost/(impressions delivered/1000).

eCRM – Electronic Customer Relationship Management.
EDGE – A faster version of GSM wireless service. It enables data to be delivered at rates up to 384 Kbps on a broadband.
eDucator – eDucator, as in educator? Get it? The industry requires a certain level of skills sharing and eMarketing eDucators hold regular industry classes, conferences and workshops.
Electronic Payment – Payment and receipt of payment via the Internet.
Email – Electronic Mail. Email is essentially mail that is electronically transferred from PC to PC. Email allows you to send messages to anyone, anywhere in the world instantly.
Email Client – A software application used to compose, send, receive and view e-mails. Some common examples include Outlook, Thunderbird, Apple Mail and Google Gmail.
Email Marketing – Email marketing is the most effective of all online marketing tactics. It is extremely cost effective, can be highly targeted and customised, is measurable and best of all takes advantage of the consumer’s most prolific touch point with the Internet, their inbox.
Email Newsletter – Like a traditional print newsletter but delivered to your inbox rather than to your post box. Sign up to Quirk’s fortnightly newsletter to get the latest eMarketing news and views.
eMarketing – The process of marketing a brand using the Internet. In a world where online is everything you may as well pack it in if you don’t have a kick-ass website and an effective eMarketing strategy… or you could contact Quirk.
eMarketing Strategist – Together with the Marketing Managers, the eMarketing Strategists know where and how to effectively position a brand online.
Encryption – Mathematical algorithms used to encode data in order to protect it from unauthorised use.
End User – The final user of a product or service.
Enterprise (ORM) – In BrandsEye lingo, ‘enterprise’ is the term used to describe brands, business and industry. For example, mentions of your brand can be produced or generated by an Enterprise (like this post for instance).
Entry – A piece of writing posted to a blog, microblog, wiki, or other easy-access Web publishing platform.
Entry Page – The first web page visited when someone enters a website.
EPC – Earnings Per Click. This is the total amount earned divided by the number of clicks.

eShare – The percent of overall company sales that go through the online channel. Typically, profit margins are higher for site sales than in-store sales.
Event – A recorded action that has a specific time assigned to it by the browser or the server. Can also refer to a step a visitor takes in the conversion process.
Exit Page – The last web page a user visit before exiting a website.
External Referrer – A URL that is outside of the website.
Ezine – An electronic magazine. Also sometimes called an e-mag.


Facebook – A dominant, free-access social-networking site which is available to companies and any person 13 years of age or older. Facebook was initially non-commercial and limited to students with a college email domain, but has since expanded to accommodate fan pages, paid advertising, and e-commerce stores.
FACEBOOK – Brainchild of Mark Zuckerberg and portrayed in the film The Social Network, if you haven’t at least heard of this website I’m surprised you managed to navigate to this page. It is the definitive social networking site. Users carve out their own section of the website with their own friends, interests and ‘likes’ and allows people to chat with their friends and share photos, along with a host of other things. Companies can also maintain a corporate page to promote themselves. The revenue comes from advertising based on the users own interests that they divulge as they interact with the site (targeted ads). To find out more about advertising on Facebook as well as other social media sites, see our Social Media Services.
Facebook – Facebook is a social networking site that allows users to join and create profiles, join groups, make friends and post photos. There are also a number of other functionalities that can be added to Facebook in the form of applications.
FACEBOOK – The most well-known social network. Founded by Mark Zuckerburg, Facebook is used by over 1 billion people. Users create their personal online space inviting their friends to share it with them. Users can ‘like’ what their interested in and they can message their friends as well as upload video’s and photos and share more data such as blogs and interesting articles. On a corporate level, companies create pages to promote themselves and interact with their ‘fans’. Facebook generates revenue from advertising based on the users’ interests as they interact with the site. To find out more about advertising on Facebook as well as other social media sites, see our Social Media Services.
Facebook Application – Facebook applications are add ons that allow users to customise their Facebook experience and perform a number of functions such as playing online games, adopting avatar pets or sending gifts.
FACEBOOK FRIENDS – Individuals that you connect with on your Facebook profile.
FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions. It’s always useful to have a section like this on your site to give users quick answers to questions they’re likely to have.
Favicon – Favourite Icon. It is a small icon that identifies a bookmarked site. It can also show in a browser’s address bar, making it a worthwhile branding effort.
Feature – A prominent aspect of a product which is beneficial to users.
Featurephones – These are handsets that offer additional functionality and often include camera and additional storage space. Often they can access the Internet, but they generally have a standard numeric keypad.
Feed – See RSS and RSS Reader.
Feed Reader – An RSS aggregator that lets you view all your RSS feeds in one place.
FILTER BUBBLE – Nowadays Google and other search engines attempt to pre-empt what you want when you are searching. Geo-Targeting is one example of this, but the search engine will also try to guess what you want, and tailor your results, by your past search history. This means that over time, as the search engine gathers a profile of what you are like, the more constricted the results may be. This can be a positive thing, as it stops results you are unlikely to want from appearing, but it also separates you from new and potentially interesting things that may be happening outside the bubble.
Firefox – Mozilla’s web browser, currently the most popular browser around.
Firewall – Security software which monitors and authorizes access.

First Party Cookies – First-party cookies are cookies that use the domain of the website a user is currently on. For example, if you visit, the domain of the cookie is First-party cookies are usually used for login, user experience, and remarketing purposes. All cookies have an owner, which tells you who the cookie belongs to, and the owner is the domain specified in the cookie. Less than 5% of people block first-party cookies as it’s very difficult to surf the internet without accepting these cookies.

First Party Data – First-party data is any data that’s gathered through a direct relationship. Both advertisers and publishers can have their own first-party data from the relationships they have with readers and customers, respectively.
Flash – Refers to a form of video software developed by Adobe Macromedia that creates vector-based graphic animations that occupy small file sizes.
Flash – Technology used to show video and animation on a website. Although popular, Flash can be bandwidth heavy and unfriendly to search engine spiders because they can’t read it. This may negatively impact on your site rankings on SERPs.
FLASH MOB – A large group of people organise to get together at a specific time and place to surprise the public. They will put on a performance that is random and pointless for a brief time and then they will disperse as if nothing has happened. The performance could entail acting, dancing and singing, all with the aim to entertain and spur curiosity. Many companies use this method to generate awareness.
Flat Rate – Fixed cost for impressions on low traffic sites.
Flickr – A media-hosting network where users can upload and share image files. It is the largest photo-storage and photo-sharing site on the Web.
FLICKR – A social network based on picture sharing. Users can store and share photos here.
Flog – A fake blog as in the Edelman/Walmart Fiasco. In this, a PR firm (Edelman) backed the creation of a fake blog detailing the travel escapades of a couple in America who camped in Wal-Mart parking lots. The whole incident was revealed as being contrived and Wal-Mart/Edelman were strongly criticised by the online and offline community.
Floppy Disk – A soft, olden day type of Memory Stick.
Focus Group – A form of qualitative research where a group of people are asked questions in an interactive group setting. From a marketing perspective, it is important tool for acquiring feedback regarding new products and various topics.
Fold – Everything you see on your computer screen for that page without needing to scroll downwards. All your critical or most important information should lie above the fold in order to ensure maximum exposure and to entice the user to read more.
Folksonomy – Categorisation or taxonomy based on social media tags.
FOLLOW – The act of choosing to see the tweets of someone on Twitter.
Forum – An area on a website (or an entire website) dedicated to user conversation through written comments and message boards, often related to customer support or fan engagement.
Forward Button – This button allows you to go forward again once you have used the back button.
FOURSQUARE – A social network for users to share their location with friends that are within a close proximity.
Frames – An HTML technique used to combine two or more HTML documents within a single web browser screen. Frames can often cause accessibility and usability issues and their use is largely discouraged by good designers.
Frequency – This is the interval, at which email efforts or advertisements such as newsletters are sent, or displayed to users (daily/weekly/monthly etc.).
Frequency Cap – Frequency capping is when cookies are used to manage the number of times a user sees a specific ad creative. This is an established limit to the number of times an ad campaign, tag, or ad size can be shown to an individual user.
FRESHNESS – Links tend to decrease in their power over time. A backlink may do better for your website today than it will in a year if it remains unchanged, to stop results pages being clogged up with outdated material. Therefore it is necessary to always get new, fresh, links.
Friends – Individuals connected to one another’s profiles on a social networking site, most frequently used in association with Facebook (e.g., Facebook friends).
FTP – Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol, a standard for transporting files online.


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) – Stands for General Packet Radio Service. Delivers wireless packet data services to GSM customers.
Gentoo – Gentoo is the free file management system for Linux and other UNIX based operating systems.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Image – An information type which bridges the gap between physical terrain and a fully integrated digital map of the chosen area.

Geofencing – A geofence is a virtual barrier. Programs that incorporate geofencing allow an administrator to set up triggers so that when a device enters or exits a boundary, a text message or email is sent.
Geographical Targeting – Also Geotargeting. Used to allow you to see where your visitors come from and to give them specific information that is relevant to them.
Geographical Targeting – Also known as geo-targeting or geo-locating. Used to allow you to see where your visitors come from and give them specific information that is relevant to them based on their location.
GIF – Graphics Interchange Format. A GIF is an 8-bit-per-pixel bitmap image format using a palette of up to 256 distinct colours. GIFs allow images to be reduced without degrading their quality.
Global Positioning System (GPS) – Stands for Global Positioning System. Satellite-based positioning technology that allows a GPS receiver to calculate its position anywhere on earth with great accuracy.
Goal – The defined action that visitors should perform on a website or the purpose of the website.
Google – The worlds best known search engine. Google offers access to billions of web pages in over 30 languages to searchers from all over the world. Google began life as the research project of two graduate students, Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Years later “Googling” has become a part of our everyday lives, long live Google!
GOOGLE + – Google’s very own social network encourages you to share with the circles (see description above) you make.
Google AdSense – This program allows web publishers to display Google ads and earn revenue from the hits that generate traffic. AdSense delivers relevant text ads that are targeted to the Google search results pages generated by your visitors’ search request.
Google Adwords – Google’s PPC program allows advertisers to display their adverts on relevant search results and across Google’s content network via this program.
GOOGLE ANALYTICS – A free, browser based tool that allows users to track many different statistics concerning an owned website. This tool is vital for SEO. For instance, a webmaster will be able to track from which search engines so users arrive on the site, and what search terms they used. It is also linked in with Google Adwords and allows control over these ads from the Google analytics site.SEOBOOK: A toolbar for Mozilla Firefox that aggregates many different measurements of a websites popularity. It is very useful for getting information about a website at a glance.
Google CV – Your Google CV is a dynamic curriculum vitae (resume) which is represented as the results which appear when an individual or company is searched for. Go on, have a look: search for your name on Google. The listings specific to you in the SERPs will form your Google CV. More and more potential employers are using candidate’s Google CVs as a reference, so you’ll want to make sure that nay negative mentions are pushed as far down as possible.
Google Earth – Google Earth is a virtual globe comprised of the super-imposition of satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS images.
GOOGLE GRANTS – Google offers up to $10,000 in free PPC advertising for eligible charities. Please check out our section explaining Google Grants at Passion Digital.
Google Slap – A term coined by AdWords advertisers to describe an unexpected change in Google AdWords policy, introducing a quality score for the landing pages of AdWords ads. It is gaining wider usage as a term to describe (unexpected) decisions and actions taken by Google, which negatively impact Web or search engine rankings, irrespective of whether they relate to Google AdWords or not.
GOOGLE TRENDS – A tool that shows search density by keyword. It can show the keyword popularity in comparison to others, as well as popularity over a given amount of time.
GOOGLE+ – Google plus is the latest competitor to the social networking market, and offers the benefit of merging all other Google services under one social networking site.
Googling – This is what you’re doing when you enter a search query in Google.
Graphical Search Inventory – Images and banner ads that are tied to particular search terms on a search engine. They are then displayed to the user after a related search term is entered.
Grey Hat – Grey Hat SEO is what occurs when white hats try and push the limits of what they can get away with. With the rapid evolution of search engines they don’t tend to get away with it for very long. See Black Hat.
Groups – Micro-communities within a social networking site for individuals who share a particular interest. LinkedIn groups are a particularly notable example of this phenomenon.
GSM – Stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. Most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies. Uses a variation of time division multiple access.
GZIP Compression – Software that compresses a website in order to speed up its download time.


Hacking – The unauthorised use or attempted use of a network or information system. Hacking usually involves bypassing security measures put in place by system administrators.
Handset – A portable or mobile phone.
HANGOUT – A video service provided by Google + which allows up to 10 people to talk at one time.
Hard Bounce – The failed delivery of email communication due to an undeviating reason like a non-existent address.
Hard Disk – A stiff olden day type of Memory Stick.
Hardware – The body of your PC. Hardware comprises of all the physical components of a computer (monitors, keyboards, printers, drives etc).
Hashtag – A symbol (#) placed directly in front of a word or words to tag a post on Twitter. It is often used to group tweets by popular categories of interest and to help users follow discussion topics.
HASHTAG (#) – The hashtag is used on both Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to connect what comes right after the hashtag. It is mostly used to describe your post, an event or situation. Hashtag trends allow you to see what is being most talked about. Companies use hashtags to measure success of campaigns.
HASHTAGS (#) – Like the concept of tags, a user can draw attention to certain aspects of a twitter post. By placing a #symbol before a word (phrases must be joined without spaces) it is highlighted as a tag. Other users will do so, and Twitter can track how many people are talking about something. This has been used to track natural disasters as many people tweet about them.
Heading Tags – Heading tags (H1, H2, H3 etc) are standard elements used to define headings and subheadings on a webpage. The number indicates the importance, so H1 tags are viewed by the spiders as being more important that the H3 tags. Using targeting key phrases in your H tags is essential for effective SEO.
Heat Map – A data visualisation tool that shows levels of activity on a web page in different colours. Reds and yellows show the areas of the most activity and blues and violets the least.
Hidden Text – A black hat technique where the keywords are invisible to the naked eye as they are the same colour as the page’s background. Search engines are not fooled by this unethical technique and sites will be penalised for employing it.
Hit – A hit, though often mistaken for a measure of popularity, is a request from a user’s browser or web server to view a particular page, file or image.
Home Page – The first page of any website. The home page gives users a glimpse into what your site is about – very much like the index in a book or a magazine.
House List – An email database that a company generates itself without purchasing or renting names.
H-Tags (H1, H2, etc.) – Also known as “header tags,” these page elements represent different levels of headings in HTML. From the largest (H1) to the smallest (H6), these define the titles/headings and sub-headings of Web copy. For SEO and reader benefits, headers should contain keywords wherever possible.
HTML – Hypertext markup language (HTML) refers to the text-based language which is used to create websites.
HTML – Hyper-Text Mark-up Language is the code that the World Wide Web is written with. If you right-click on this page a select “view code” you can see this code. Interestingly, this code is all a WebCrawler sees. Other types of code are used on the internet, such as flash, but search engines cannot view this material at all. The latest version is HTML5, and this hopes to incorporate features that were previously only seen with Flash.
HTML – HyperText Markup Language. This is the “language” read by web browsers. Certain HTML “tags” are used to structure the information and features within a web page. As an example, HTML emails usually contain graphics and can be interactive.
HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol, a protocol used when browsing the World Wide Web.
Hyperlink – A link in an electronic document that allows you, once you click on it, to follow the link to the relevant web page. Hyperlinks are often written in underlined, blue text.
Hyperlink – Known as “link” for short, a hyperlink is a word or phrase which is clickable and takes the visitor to another Web page. This page can be within the same site or on a completely different site. Instead of a full URL string, a word or phrase is typically displayed in the body copy for the linked page (see “anchor text”), which can bring both reader and SEO benefits


IA – IA is the structural design of shared environments, methods of organising and labelling websites, intranets and online communities and the ways of bringing the principles of design and architecture (structure) to the digital landscape.
IEEE 802.11 – The set of standard which outline the Wireless LAN protocol (WiFi)
iFrame – An iFrame is an HTML document which allows additional HTML elements to be embedded within.
iFrames – Also known as simply “frames,” these HTML tag devices allow 2 or more websites to be displayed simultaneously on the same page. Facebook now allows companies to create customized tabs for its fan pages using iFrames, a process which developers find much easier than using the previous “FBML,” or Facebook markup language.
iGoogle Gadget – Customisable additions that can be loaded onto your iGoogle home page and perform various functions such as weather updates, sports scores or TV guides.
IIS – Internet Information Services. A web server from Microsoft. It is the world’s second most popular web server in terms of overall websites.
IM – Instant Messaging is a technology that allows its users to communicate in real-time, via text chat. Essentially your IM system alerts you when a contact on your list is online and you can then initiate a chat session.
Impression – An impression is simply someone seeing an advert. They may not click on it or buy anything.
Impression – An instance of an organic search-engine listing or sponsored ad being served on a particular Web page or an image being viewed in display advertising. In paid search, “cost-per-impression” is a common metric.
Impression Fraud – The act of deliberately generating impressions of an advert without the intention of clicking on the advert. The result is a reduction in click through rate which can affect Quality Score in PPC advertising.
Impressions – The number of times a web page or ad is viewed.
In SEO, “spam” can be any Web page that a search engine views as harming the credibility of its results. Examples of these can include doorway pages, link farms, keyword stuffing, cloaking and other duplicitous or otherwise user-hostile practices. The standards for what constitutes SEO spam varies by search engine and current algorithm factors.

Incremental Revenue Tests – Incremental revenue tests compare average revenue driven by users from two groups: those assigned to a retargeting group vs. a control group. Users are split randomly at the point of ad serving, thereby showing ads to users in the retargeting ad group and charity ads to those in the control group. This methodology drives more reliable results at lower levels of spending and is easier to track on a daily basis. Because ads are shown to users, the control group will incur additional media costs that will decrease the ROAS of your program during testing. This methodology is what most marketers go for because you also help a charity in the process.

Inbound Link – A link from another website directed to yours, also known as a “backlink.” Related marketing areas that focus on inbound links include link popularity,social media and online PR, all of which explore ways to collect quality links from other websites.
Inbound Link – See Backlink.
Index – The actual collection of data and websites obtained by a search engine, also known as “search index.”
Index – The searchable catalogue of documents and pages created by a search engine. Web spiders index websites with the search engines by scanning or crawling them.
INFLUENCER – Someone who is an expert in a certain field and, or have a large following. Influencers therefore hold a lot of power in communicating their opinions to their following, perhaps affecting their opinions and behaviour.
INSTAGRAM – A photo sharing social network with differs from others as it runs as a mobile application. The application allows users to take photographs which they can then apply filters to. Your photos are automatically shared on Instagram and then you have the option to share them on other social networks.
Instant Messaging – A service where individuals can communicate through a real-time, text-based interface over an Internet connection. The exchange of small files and screen-sharing are also typically available on these platforms. AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is one of the most famous (and original) American examples of this software. Many other software programs provide this functionality, including Skype, Facebook, Gmail, and corporate videoconference clients.
Integration – Consolidation of many media toward a unified platform or standard.
Internal Referrer – A URL that is part of the same website.
Internal Site Search – A search function specific to one site. This awesome tool allows users to find what ever they are looking for on your site. All they do is type in the search term and hey presto if you have it on your site, they’ll find it.
Internet – A worldwide system of interconnected computer networks. The Internet connects millions of individuals from every corner of the globe. If it wasn’t for the Internet we wouldn’t be here – needless to say we LOVE it!
Internet Press Release – An element of WebPR, an internet press release is exactly the same as a traditional press release but is released online rather than in print and can be optimized to form part of an SEO strategy.
IP Address – The Internet Protocol (IP) address is a exclusive number, which is used to represent every single computer in a network.
IP Address – This series of numbers and periods represents the unique numeric address for each Internet user.
iPhone – The popular smartphone, produced by Apple.
Irrelevant (ORM) – Marking a online mention as irrelevant (during the sorting phase) means that it is related your particular key phrases but not relevant to your brand. For example to the brand Apple computers a mention about the fruit may be found but are irrelevant to your brand.
ISP – Internet Service Provider – this is the company that is providing you access to the Internet e.g. MWEB, AOL, Yahoo! etc.
IxD – Interaction Design defines the structure and behaviours of interactive products and services and user interactions with those products and services. It is grounded in an understanding of real users (goals, tasks, experiences, needs and wants) and balances these needs with business goals and technological capabilities.


Jaiku – A cousin of Twitter, this now-defunct microblogging social network and mobile-phone app was started in Finland and later purchased by Google.
Java – A programming language which allows multifaceted and graphical customer applications to be written and then accessed from a web browser.
Java – Java is a powerful programming language which is independent of platforms, meaning it can run on multiple computers and operating systems.
Java Developer – Specialists in Java, and usually a few other programming languages, the Java team are indispensable in an eMarketing agency.
JavaScript – A popular scripting language that is used on websites to perform client side actions without requiring full page refreshes. Examples include web analytics for page tagging and page animation. See AJAX.
JavaScript – JavaScript is a relatively simple scripting language which can be seamlessly integrated with HTML and is used on many websites. JavaScript is less complex and consequently, less powerful than Java.
Junkmail – See Spam.


Kaboodle – A social shopping network where members create their own shopping lists and find, suggest and share products and reviews.
KEI Analysis – Keyword Effectiveness Indicator. It is designed to measure and quantify the quality and worth of a search term.
Key Performance Indicator – A metric that indicates whether a website is achieving its goals.
Key Phrase – Word/words a page or website is being optimised for. Also used to refer to words that are utilised by of search engine users.
KeyWirky – A composite word derived from keyword and quirky. Describes the way one should write for the web: using keywords appropriately, yet still keeping the copy fresh, relevant and quirky. It’s all about personality! Thanks to Andre from the Africa Travel Guide for this awesome definition.
KEYWORD – A term or phrase that a user will search for with a search engine. It is important to have your business’ website associated with these keywords so that it will appear when these words are searched for.
Keyword – A word or words used by a searcher on a search engine. In SEO, keywords are the words that a website is optimised to rank for and in PPC, keywords are bid on by advertisers. In Online Reputation Management, a keyword is a term that is used when searching the Internet for mentions.
Keyword Density – The proportion of keywords to the total number of words in the face copy of a website.
Keyword Density – This relates to the number of times a keyword/key phrases appear on a webpage. This divided by the total number of words that appear on a page gives you a percentage. The higher the better – but not too high. You don’t want to be penalised for keyword stuffing.
Keyword Frequency – The number of times a keyword or key phrase appears on a website
Keyword Phrase – Two or more words that are combined to form a search term/query – often referred to as keywords. It is usually better to optimise for a phrase rather than a single word as more searches will search for a phrase rather a than word as they want more specific and relevant content.
Keyword Proximity – The relative placement of keywords in prominent areas of a Web page, including the distance between keywords in the visible text.
Keyword Rankings – This term refers to where the keywords/phrases targeted by your SEO efforts rank amongst the search engines – if your targeted terms do not appear on the first 3 pages, start worrying.
Keyword Research – The process of researching what searchers are actually searching for. Copy optimisation revolves around the selection of the best keywords/key phrases. There are a multitude of keyword research tools out there, which will help you discover the best possible keywords to use.
Keyword Stemming – The practice adopted by search engines to group search results not only by exact keyword matches, but also by variations of keywords in semantic groups, such as singular-plural, related suffixes, and synonyms.
KEYWORD STUFFING – A webpage has a section that is hidden from users, but contains all the words relevant to the page. Keyword stuffing is a black hat technique whereby this section is abused and filled my a high amount of irrelevant keywords, in the hope that it will be associated with these words and found when these words are searched for. Google will penalise websites that it discovers using this technique, and the use of keywords to tag a website is becoming less useful.
Keyword Stuffing – Repeating keywords/phrases over and over ad nauseum in the hopes of improving the page’s ranking. Search engines penalise sites heavily for keyword stuffing.
Keywords – The terms that a user enters into a search engine. They can also signify the terms a website is targeting to rank highly as part of an SEO marketing campaign.
KLOUT – A measure of social influence, Klout connects your social accounts and provides each user with a Klout score. The higher your score is the more influencer you have in the social world. The Klout score is out of 100.


Lame-Ass Syndrome (LAS) – This unfortunate yet common syndrome results in sites that will not function without the WWW in the URL; it is caused by System Administrators presenting signs of severe DNS laziness.
Landing Page – A stand-alone Web page that a user “lands” on, commonly after visiting a paid search-engine listing or following a link in an email newsletter. This kind of page often is designed with a very specific purpose (i.e. conversion goals) for visitors.
Landing Page – The page a user reaches when clicking on a paid or organic search engine listing or a banner advertisement. The pages that have the most success are those that match up as closely as possible with the users search query.
LANDING PAGE – The specific webpage on a website that a user is taken to when clicking on a search engine result or a PPC advert. While this could simply be the homepage, often it is more helpful to the customer (and therefore your profits) if they are taken to a page that is specific to their search terms. For instance, if you clicked a PPC ad for ‘Passion Digital SEO’ and ended up on the CRO explanation page, that would be disingenuous for both us and you.
Lead – A potential customer.
LIKE – An action made by a Facebook user that represents approval.
Link – A link is a URL imbedded on a webpage, if you click on the link you will be taken to that page.
Link Bait – A technique for providing useful content that attracts links from other web pages. Particularly applicable when creating content that appeals to social networks and/or bloggers. Our recent eMarketing 101 series is a good example of
LINK BAIT – A webpage with great, interesting content that people will share with others. They may share it through email, or over Facebook or Twitter, or even social news and bookmarking sites like Reddit or Digg. The link bait may depend on your market; it could be an interesting infographic, a funny video or even a picture of a cat with some text on it. Depending on who links to it, creating link bait is vital for creating a high search rank.
LINK BUILDING – The process by which you increase the amount of links to your website. It may involve generating more interesting or newsworthy content, creating a blog, asking clients to link, plus many other techniques. It is the goal of SEO to build many good links to a website.
Link Checker – These tools are used to check your site for broken hyperlinks. Very useful.
Link Farm – A website exclusively devoted to listing a very large number of links without groupings, categories, or structure. These sites are largely discredited by major search engines, and your site’s engagement with one can potentially lead to ranking penalties.
Link Love – The search engine ranking value which is achieved when others hyperlink to your website.
Link Popularity – A measure of the quantity and quality of other web pages that link to a website.
Link Popularity – A measurement of the number and quality of sites that link to a given site, especially as cataloged in a search-engine index.
Link Rot – When you click on a link and receive an error message or a notification that the website has been moved. This highly frustrating phenomenon known as “link rot” is detrimental to SEO as spiders cannot keep up with the changes. This could be solved by a redirect link being inserted.
LinkedIn – A business-oriented social networking site for professionals. Much like Facebook, LinkedIn allows members to connect with other users on the network, share status updates, and participate in groups and chats, although with a career focus.
Linux – An open source operating system based on UNIX. Linux is used to run web servers and desktops.
Listings – A listing is a website’s presence in a search engine or directory, and is not necessarily indicative of its search-engine positioning.
Load Time – The length of time it takes for a page to open completely in the browser window.
Local Area Network – LAN. A network of workstations sharing a server within a relatively small geographic area, like in an office.
Log Analyser – Software that provides information about a site’s visitors, activity statistics, accessed files, click-through paths and other analytical data based on the users behaviour.
Log File – A file that is automatically created by a web server listing the actions that have occurred. Log file analysis tools show where visitors are coming from, how often they visit, and track their path through the site. When used in conjunction with cookies they provide a much more in-depth information.
LONG TAIL – Many terms are searched for through search engines, and many people search for the same things. As these terms are so popular, it is very difficult for a starter company to compete against the established websites. However, on the other hand, there are a vast amount of terms that are searched for relatively rarely. These terms are said to be part of the ‘long tail’, as when plotted on a graph the terms are searched for infrequently, but there are many of them. It is far easier for a starter company to rise to the top of the results with long tail keywords, albeit with fewer potential searchers.

Long-tail is a way to describe the millions of smaller, lower-trafficked sites on the Web that offer advertising. They usually have niche audiences, whether that’s because they’re local sites or just have very specialized content. While long-tail sites don’t have extremely high traffic numbers, they can offer significant value to advertisers by giving them the ability to attain lower CPM rates while reaching specific targets that may be more likely to buy their products and services. The long-tail can be difficult to monetize.

Look-Alike Models – Look-alike models are used to build larger audiences from smaller audience segments to create reach for advertisers. Look-alike targeting is an advertising technique which consists of reaching out an audience similar to an advertiser’s customers. The original profile of audience is determined via CRM data or website behaviors and is then matched against anonymous user pools by a dedicated marketing vendor.



Marketing Manager – The big brains in the conception and application of internal and external marketing strategies.
Marketing Mix – The four elements businesses need to consider for the success of their marketing efforts: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The focus and strategy that is placed on each one is entirely dependant on the goals of the marketing strategy.
Marketing Plan – A written document detailing the actions necessary to achieve marketing objectives.
Mashup – When content from two or more sources is combined.
Mass Customisation – Tailoring content for many individuals.
Media Segmentation Analysis (ORM) – In ORM, the graphic representation of the media sources from which mentions relating to your brand allows you to better understand how particular media types are interacting with your brand.
MEME – An idea, joke or concept that people share. Meme’s can be images or videos or text. Typically a meme comes in the form of an image with supportive text.
Mentions – In Online Reputation Management, mentions refer to the instances when your brand, company or staff members are talked about online, usually by your clients or consumers. Online Reputation Management and monitoring tools, like BrandsEye, seek out mentions and alert you to them, so that your company can respond appropriately.
Merchant – This is the owner of the product that is being marketed or promoted. Also referred to as “Advertiser”.
Meta Data – Information that can be entered about a web page and the elements on it that provide context and relevancy information to search engines. These used to be an all important ranking factor.
Meta Description Tag – A short paragraph describing the page content. This summary is usually shown on the SERPs if it contains the term searched for. The spiders use the meta tag description to determine the topic of the page, making the use of targeted key phrases important.
Meta Keyword Tag – A list of the words and phrases that are important and relevant on the web page. The use of targeted key phrases is important here – but remember no keyword stuffing.
Meta Tags – Meta tags are there to tell the spiders what exactly the webpages are about. It’s important that your Meta tags are optimised for the targeted key phrases. Meta tags are made up of meta titles, descriptions and keywords, etc.
Meta-Description Tag – A tag on a Web page located in the heading source code containing a basic description of the page. It helps search engines categorize the page and can potentially inform users who come across the page listing in search results.
Meta-Keywords Tag – In the past, this tag allowed page authors to insert a massive list of keywords related (and occasionally unrelated) to a page in order to game search-engine results. Today, this tag’s potential to influence rankings has diminished to the point where it is widely disregarded by major search engines.
Meta-Search Engine – A search engine that does not compile its own independent results, but rather pulls data from two or more search engines, such as
Meta-Search Engines – A search tool that will allow a user to conduct a search across two or more search engines and directories. Examples of meta-search engines include Clusty and Dogpile.
Meta-Tags – Also called meta-data, this information found in HTML page headers used to be the bread and butter of SEO marketing tactics. Still used today despite widely perceived diminishing relevance to search-engine rankings, the most common are the “title,” “description,” and “keyword” tags (see below).
Microblog – A microblog is a social media utility where users can share short status updates and information. The most famous example is Twitter, which combines aspects of blogs (personalized Web posting) with aspects of social networking sites (making and tracking connections, or “friends”).
Microblogging – Brief text updates that are usually less than 200 characters. These are published via SMS, the Web, IM, email or Mp3 and can either be received by the general online community or a select number of individuals. As of May 2009, the most popular microblogging service is Twitter.
Microsoft adCenter – The pay-per-click (PPC) search-engine advertising program provided by Microsoft in conjunction with its Bing search engine, now also populating Yahoo! search results.
Mini Browser – Small, simple browser used on mobile phones: E.g. Opera Mini.
Mirror Site – Duplicate copy of a website already in existence, used to increase response time for high-volume sites.
MMS – Stands for Multimedia Message Service. An extension on SMS, allows picture, sound or low quality videos to be sent on a wireless network.
Mobile Device – A mobile phone, PDA or other handset.
Mobile Network – The facilities and technology that provide a public mobile telecommunications service possible.
Moblog – A blend of the words mobile and weblog. A moblog, consists of content posted to the Internet from a mobile or portable device, such as a cellular phone or PDA. Moblogs generally involve technology which allows publishing from a mobile device.
mozRank – A number from 0 to 10 indicating how high a site is likely to rank in the search results. Provided by SEOmoz’s Linkscape.
MSN – MSN Search was developed by Microsoft and comprised of a search engine, index, and web crawler. On September 12 2006, MSN Search evolved into MSN Live Search which offers users the ability to search for specific types of information using search tabs that include the Web, news, images, music, desktop, local, and Microsoft Encarta.
Multivariate Testing – A test using many variables to determine statistically significant influences on outcomes.
MySpace – A once-leading social-networking site, the music-themed MySpace allows more freedom for users to personalize their profiles than other social-networking sites, such as Facebook, which are more structured. Though its membership has shrunk significantly from its peak, the community is still popular among musicians as a platform for sharing music and interacting with fans.
MySpace – MySpace is a social networking website that offers users the opportunity to build profiles, collect friend lists, blog, join groups and enjoy a number of other interactive networking activities.
MySQL – An open source, Database Management System which is available for both Linux and Windows. Based on goals of speed, robustness and ease of use, this system stores information for use on websites.


Natural Listings – See “organic listings.”
Natural Search – Non-paid search engine results. See also Organic Results.
Navigation – Navigation is what allows users to move from page to page in your site. It is essential that your navigation is user friendly. If the users can’t easily find their way, they won’t travel deeper into your site.
NEGATIVE KEYWORD – The opposite of a keyword: if a user searches using a negative keyword, your results will not show. This is useful if a link is easily confused with something else.
NEIGHBOURHOOD/LINK NEIGHBOURHOOD – Search engines evaluate the trustworthiness of a website based on how many links point to that website. But links from trustworthy sites are better than links from untrustworthy, and potentially spammy, websites. If a website is within a system of bad websites that all link to it, it is seen to be in a bad link neighbourhood. So while the website may have many links pointing to it, a search engine may still evaluate it untrustworthy based on the websites that point to it. On the other hand, if many trustworthy websites link to it, the search engine can be reasonably certain that it too is trustworthy.
Netiquette – Like etiquette but on the net, netiquette are the social rules that govern online interactions. An example of a net no-no would be IMing someone in caps (this means you’re SHOUTING).
Netizen – A word derived from net and citizen. Unlike a newbie, a netizen is an experienced web user. Someone who has spent a significant (if not disproportionate) time on the web.
Network – A group of two or more computer systems linked together in a LAN or a WAN.
New Visitor – A unique visitor who visits a website for the first time ever in the period of time being analysed.
Newbie – Aka noob. Fresh blood – someone who is new to the wonderful online world and are often unaware of netiquette. You have to start somewhere, right?
NEWS FEED – The hub of everyone’s posts. For Facebook, the news feed is made up of friend’s posts. On Twitter, it is known as Timeline as is made up of tweets of those you follow. The news feed is constantly refreshed with the latest posts.
Newsgroup – An online discussion group usually focussed around a specific topic. Articles are posted and people have discussions around them.
Ning – A hosting service with a set of community-building tools that allows anyone to create a social network.
Nofollow – “Nofollow” is an append which is coded into the HTML markup of a hyperlink. It is used to prevent a search engine from indexing a link to a particular Web page. Some strategic uses of external “nofollow” are associated with link popularity management, e.g., for site owners that do not want to give full “follow” credit to links posted by users in their forums or blog comments.
NOFOLLOW – Since 2005, Google has been using a new term that can be implemented into the ‘rel’ code of a link. Whereby a normal link to another website counts as a ‘vote’ in that websites favour, a ‘nofollow’ command stops Google and most other search engines from counting a vote. It does not stop their WebCrawlers from following the link, however.
NoFollow Link – NoFollow is an attribute of a hyperlink, indicating that the link is not necessarily endorsed by the website and is ignored by search engine spiders.
NoIndex – A NoIndex page is a HTML meta tag (at page level) telling the search engine spiders visiting your site not to display the page in the SERPs.

Nurture Marketing – The process of developing relationships with potential customers through a series of contacts with the objective of developing them into qualified sales leads.


Online Press Release – Press releases distributed over the Internet. It is aimed at a broader segment of reader including social media, consumers and journalists.
Online Press Room – A part of a website aimed at providing journalists with pertinent corporate information such as PR contacts, images and press releases.
Online Reputation – Your online reputation refers to how your company, brand or staff is perceived by the online community. It is influenced by the comments that people make about you and your brand on blogs, in forums and discussion groups and on Twitter. It can be damaged or built on, depending on the sentiment of the mentions. Many companies choose to monitor and manage their online reputations to prevent long-term, serious damage to their brands as a result of negative consumer generated media.
Online Reputation Management – the only way you can measure what is being said about your company, product and business methods online. How you are portrayed online is a vital part of any PR strategy, especially when that portrayal is negative. – At Quirk, we use our very own Online Reputation Management tool – BrandsEye – to help our clients secure their reputations online.
Online Reputation Score (ORM) – This is an absolute gold mine of information and the most reliable indicator of what your reputation is like on the internet. Your final online reputation report can be customised using BrandsEye’s filters, to reflect only the information that you deem important – resulting in an overall Reputation Score that can be compared with your competitors or (cheekily) between your CEO and yourself. This Reputation Score acts as the “spot price” of your brand at any moment and is graphed on a time graph for easy comparison.
Open Education Declaration – It is a “statement of principle, a statement of strategy and a statement of commitment. It meant to spark dialogue, to inspire action and to help the open education movement grow.” OED is centred around efforts to promote open resources, technology and teaching practices in education so as to make it freely accessible to all learners.
Open Rate – This is also referred to as the read rate. This is the number of emails that are opened in an email marketing campaign as a proportion of the total number of emails sent.
Open Source – Unlike proprietary software, open source software makes the source code available so that other developers can build applications for the software, or even improve on it.
Open-Source Software – Computer software with a special license that allows users in the general public to edit and improve the source code. Famously exemplified in the Firefox Web browser and Wikipedia encyclopedia, it is an example of the kind of collaboration that is encouraged under the Web 2.0 ethos. Contrast with closed, propriety software that does not share its codebase beyond an exclusive group of authorized developers.
Operational CRM – Entails supporting the “front office” business processes, which include customer contact (sales, marketing and service).
OPML – A file containing a list of RSS URLs. Often used for sharing feeds amongst users.
Opt-In – Also known as subscribe. Explicitly requesting to receive information from a company via e-mail. All responsible email marketers ensure that only users who have opted in receive their communication. If you haven’t opted in – it’s SPAM!
Opt-Out – Also known as unsubscribe – The act of removing oneself from a list or lists so that specified information is no longer received via email.
Organic Listings – Also known as “natural” listings, these are search-engine results that have not been purchased. They are calculated solely by an engine’s algorithm and are based on the merits of the listed pages. Typically, most search engines will display several sponsored ads related to search terms (often separated by background color or otherwise highlighted) before displaying the non-paid listings.
ORGANIC LISTINGS – These are the results of a web search that have not been paid for. The positions of the results should be organic in that they reflect the popularity/trustworthiness of the website without being influenced by paid advertising.
Organic Search – These are the listings generally found on the left hand side of a SERP and are not influenced by direct financial payments. These listings are results based on factors such as keyword relevancy within a webpage: SEO is used to boost success.
Original Referrer – The URL that sent a new visitor to the website.
ORM – Online Reputation Management – the only way you can measure what is being said about your company, product and business methods online. How you are portrayed online is a vital part of any PR strategy, especially when that portrayal is negative.
OS – Abbreviation for Operating System, the software used by a computer to operate.
Outbound Link – Any link on a Web page to an external Web page.
Outbound Links – These links will, once clicked on, take users to another site.
Overture – Formerly, bought by Yahoo! And provider of Yahoo!’s PPC advertising. Panama has replaced Overture as the platform that powers Yahoo! Search Marketing.


Page – Unit of content (so downloads and Flash files can be defined as a page).
Page Exit Ratio – Number of exits from a page divided by total number of page views.
Page Tags – JavaScript files embedded on a web page and executed by the browser.
Page Views – The number of times a page was successfully requested.
Page Views Per Visit – The number of page views in a reporting period divided by the number of visits in that same period.
PageRank – A former proprietary method of Google (now disavowed) for measuring the popularity of a Web page. Much-debated in the SEO community, the measurement is believed to be influenced chiefly by the number and quality of inbound and outbound links associated with a given page. Updated infrequently, this rank was indicated as a number between 1 and 10 most commonly displayed in a green bar chart in the Google toolbar add-on for browsers. The SEO community consensus opinion is that the measurement was nothing more than Google’s incomplete assessment of the relative strength of a website.
PageRank – PageRank gives a ranking or score to every webpage on the Internet based on the number and quality of the page’s backlinks, this score is a number out of 10 with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest. Anything above 5 means your site is doing well!
PAGERANK – The algorithm or WebCrawler that powers Google’s search. It is named after Larry Page, a co-founder of Google and not webpages. PageRank indexes all the accessible webpages on the web and ranks them by how many important websites link back to a particular page. The higher the rating, the further up the results page they are than similar websites with lower ranks. Other search engines, such as Yahoo and Bing, use similar systems.
Paid Listings – Listings sold to advertisers for a fee. Also known as “paid placement.” See “pay-per-click.”
Paid Search – Placing ads for products or services on SERPs (listings appear at the top of the page and on the right hand side) and on content sites across the Internet. These ads are typically small snippets of text linked to merchandise pages. See PPC.
PARTIAL/EXACT MATCH ANCHOR TEXT – The anchor text is the text that the user clicks on for a link. It is also what a WebCrawler uses to decide what the linked page is about. Therefore, a link to your website with the anchor text that has the exact keywords you wish for your website is the ideal. Or at least it used to be, but Google has taken measures to penalise too many links with the same anchor text, as it is inorganic. Instead, it is more effective to include some keywords in the anchor, perhaps separated by a few words, which will create a Partial match. It is becoming better to use PMAT rather than EMAT.
Pass On – To share content with another person.
Pass On Rate – The number of times a piece of information or content is forwarded to others.
Pay Per Lead – Similar to Pay Per Click, PPL is an advertising payment model in which payment is made on leads not just clicks.
Pay-For-Performance – A paid-search system nearly identical to (and essentially synonymous with) pay-per-click.
Pay-Per-Click – Also known as “PPC,” this type of paid search marketing involves placing advertisements that run above or besides (and occasionally below) the free search-engine listings on Google, Bing, and Yahoo!. Typically, to get the highest position among these ads, website owners place a per-click bid. It’s not uncommon to participate in a bidding war for coveted top spots. For example, if a website’s listing is among the top 3 advertisements on a page, the same ad appears in the same location on partner websites. Some marketing firms, including Fathom, provide bid management services to get the most value for each search term.
PC – Personal Computer.
PDF – “Portable Document Format” is a type of file for viewing documents, created by Adobe. PDFs are especially suitable for print-out viewing, so the format is a good choice for sharing high-value collateral like white papers and guides.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) – Refers to any type of interaction between two or more people within a specific social network. Most viral media by definition get their popularity via such P2P sharing. The term is also widely associated with (often illicit) file-sharing networks for music and movies, though not exclusive to that realm.
PENGUIN – Google Penguin is the latest version of its PageRank WebCrawler which improves its spam detection. It is better at detecting cloaking, keyword stuffing and duplicate pages. It is in place to better organic searches.
Permalink – A unique URL which points to the permanent location of a single blog post and its associated comments and Trackbacks.
Persona – A character used to define a group of users to a website.
Phishing – A criminal activity where “Phishers” attempt to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details. Often this is done by masquerading as something the victim is likely to trust (another person or reputable business) via some form of electronic communication like email, IM or even telephone.
Phrase Category (ORM) – BrandsEye allows you to group your keywords and phrases into categories. For example you could have one category tracking keywords and phrases related to your products and another category tracking your competitors.
Ping – Packet Internet Groper. A utility that verifies a link or a connection to the Internet.
PINS – Images that are chosen from websites or within the Pinterest community. These images are then placed onto image boards.
PINTEREST – A social network for people to create image boards.
PLATFORM – Framework that runs software and presents content.
Plug-in – An extension that adds on to the capabilities of a major software package. SearchStatus, for example, is a Mozilla or Firefox plug-in that allows you to see how any and every website in the world is performing.
Podcast – A series of audio or video content which can be downloaded and listened to/viewed offline (or a particular episode in that series, e.g. podcast #6 of The Sporkful). A podcast is essentially an asynchronous Internet version of a “broadcast,” but to a very specific audience of willing subscribers. Podcasts are sometimes created to provide stand-alone copies of existing radio or television programming (such as daily/weekly shows), but they may also consist of entirely unique content intended for devoted Web-based subscribers.
PODCAST – Typically an audio file, a podcast is available to download for playback.
Podcasting – Publishing audio programs via the Internet, allowing users to subscribe to a feed of new files. Podcasting enables independent producers to create self-published, syndicated “radio shows”. Listeners may subscribe to feeds using “podcatching” software such as iTunes (a type of aggregator), which periodically checks for and downloads new content automatically.
Popup – Unrequested window that opens on top of the currently viewed window.
Pop-Up Ad – A form of advertisement which automatically opens (or “pops up” in) a new window in a browser to display an ad. Also seen in the form of “pop-under” ads, a slightly less intrusive version. These interruptive approaches to advertising are generally disliked (and therefore ignored) by Internet users. Many browser-based and stand-alone software programs exist to block these ads.
Position – Same as “rank” in reference to search-engine listings.
PPC – An abbreviation for “pay-per-click.”
PPC – Pay per Click. Buying sponsored adverts on search engine results pages and content pages and only paying for those ads on a performance basis. See Paid Search.
PPC – Pay Per Click. While Search Engine Optimisation improves a websites standing in the unpaid section of a search engine, paid results are also found on search engines. On Google, they are above, and to the right, of the main (unpaid) results. The website being advertised only has to pay when these paid links are clicked, and more popular keywords are more expensive. These adverts are targeted to the specific search terms. Find out more about our Pay Per Click Coordination.
PR – Stands for Page Rank, and is usually seen accompanied by a number i.e. ‘PR6’. It is a score of how trustworthy a particular site is as ranked by Google’s PageRank algorithm. A score of 10 is the highest, and unattainable by all but the most popular websites on the web. A Score of 0 or N/A is the worst. The PR of a website must be evaluated next to similar websites and websites that have similar keywords to see how well it will do in search results.
Press Release – Also called a news release, this is an electronic or paper document issued to the media with the intention of gaining news coverage. It follows established layout guidelines.
Primary Research – The collection of data to present a new set of findings from original research.
Profile – A profile is a personal page within a social network created by a user for sharing with others on the network. The profile provides basic biographical information and often links to the profiles of the user’s friends/connections.
PROFILE – On each social network you are given a profile to develop with your personal information and content which you can then choose to share and interact with.
Profit – Money made from a product/service after expenses have been accounted for.
Publisher – See Affiliate.
PUK – Stands for Personal Unblocking Code, used to access a SIM card which has been blocked (due to lost or incorrect PIN number).
Purity Point – The ‘cleanliness’ of a mailing list based on previous mailings. A Purity Point of 0 is the best while 1 is the poorest. This decimal number is based on the number of bounces and their type in comparison to the number of emails sent.


Qualitative Data – Data that can be observed but not measured. Deals with descriptions.
Quality Score – Basis for measuring the quality of keywords and determining minimum PPC bids. This score is calculated by measuring a keyword’s click-through rate, ad text relevancy, the keyword’s historical performance and the quality of the landing page.
Quantitative Data – Data which can be measured or defined. Deals with numbers.
Query – The term(s) entered into a search engine by the user.
QWERTY – A full keypad, similar to the one found on computers.


Ranking – In search, ranking is used to describe the relative position of a web page in the SERPs.
Ranking(s) – The position of a website’s listing(s) in search-engine results pages. The higher a rank for a specific keyword, the more generally visible a page is to search-engine users.
Rapid Inclusion – The indexing of websites in search engines and directories based on a per-page fee. As opposed to free submissions, where indexes are updated every few weeks (or less frequently), rapid indexing occurs every 48-72 hours.
Rating (ORM) – Rating is the process of tagging information onto each mention about your brand. This includes the media origin, sentiment and credibility amongst other things. This process allows for the automated reporting to take place.
Ratio – An interpretation of data captured. A ratio can be between counts and ratios or a ratio and a count metric.
Reach – The number of unique users who’ve viewed an online advertisement.
REALLY SIMPLE SYNDICATION (RSS) – Delivers content enabling readers to stay up-to-date with any blogs or sites they read without them having to visit each individual site.
Reciprocal Link – A link to a website that is reciprocated in the form of a backlink, often prearranged by sites with mutually benefitting audiences. If abused, e.g., two sites with no topical relation decide to link to each other (and many other sites) exclusively for the sake of linking, penalties from search engines could result. See “link farm.”
Reciprocal Link – This is when a site agrees to link to another site providing that the other site links back to it in return.
REDDIT – A social news site that is made up of users who share and leave comments on stories.
Redirect – See “301 redirect.”
Referral – When an 3rd party site/blog/individual recommend a site, product or service provider to a second individual or company.
Referrer – The URL of the web page that a user was on before reaching yours. The server’s logs capture referral URLs and store them in their log files. Furthermore, if a user used a search engine to find your website, the key phrases they used to find your site will be embedded in the referring URL. Intelligent log analysers can then use this data to track how many visitors originate from each key phrase.
Registration – The process of signing up to participate in an online forum, community or social-media network. At minimum, this act usually involves sharing a name and email address in order to set up a username and password.
REL – Part of the code for a link may include a ‘rel’ signifier, which is short for relation. It tells a WebCrawler something about the link, and is used to fine tune certain aspects of SEO. There are two terms frequently used by us:
Relevant (ORM) – When conducting ORM, marking a mention as Relevant (during the sorting phase) means that it is related to the brand, of interest to yourself and will be included in your statistics.
Repeat Visitors – A unique visitor with two or more visits within the time period being analysed.
REPINS – The action a Pinterest user takes when pinning an image from someone’s board onto one of their own.
Reputation Score – This is the single, quantifiable number, generated by BrandsEye – Quirk’s Online Reputation Management software. It is derived from an algorithm that takes into account all the relevant mentions of a brand and the significance that the user has attached to them. This significance is ascertained through the process of tagging each mention to rank across a number of weighted criteria that include sentiment and credibility. This score provides a benchmark against the brand’s reputation as it fluctuates over time and also allows comparison between a brand and its competitors.
Return Visitor – A unique visitor who is not a new visitor to the site.
RETWEET – An action on tweets for users to share that tweet with their following. The action resends the message with the original users name tag.
Revenue – Yield of income from a particular source.
Revenue Share – Commission structure where the affiliate earns a percentage of a sale.
ROAS – Return on Advertising Spend. Indicates the amount of revenue garnered from each referrer. It is calculated by dividing the total amount of revenue garnered by the total amount of revenue spent on the advertising campaign.
Robot – Also known as “bot.” See “crawler.”
Robots Exclusion Protocol – A protocol used to indicate to search engine robots which pages should not be indexed.
ROBOTS.TXT – A file that says to a search engine WebCrawler “do not search me!” Placing a file named robots.txt in the main directory of a website allows the webmaster to block all WebCrawlers from accessing the page, or specifically block certain WebCrawlers, and therefore stop appearing in results of search engines.
ROI – An acronym for “return-on-investment.” ROI is the percentage of profit from a given digital marketing activity. For example, if you pay $50 a month for CPC advertising, and it leads to $500 in profit, your ROI would be 1000%.
Root Category (ORM) – A Root Category is essentially a base level category. For example, if you were tracking Google and wanted to compare it to Yahoo! Then both would be Root Categories. Within each root category is a number of sub-categories which contain the actual search phrases.
RSS – “Really simple syndication” is the process by which content such as blog posts or podcasts can be updated regularly and syndicated to subscribers in feeds. RSS feeds enable users to access content updates from various outlets—e.g. their favorite blogs, news sites, and digital audio/video providers—all in one central location.
RSS FEED – Users subscribe to news feeds to get all the latest information in one place (RSS Reader).
RSS READER – Taking all the information from subscribed news sites and blogs, the reader puts all this information in one easy-to-digest place. It is displayed in a format that is constantly refreshed to get up-to-date information.


Salesforce Automation – A type of program that automates the business task of sales associated with effective implementation, productivity and forecasts.
Sandboxed – A restricted environment for programming.
Scraper – Also called a content scraper, these tools automatically collect content from other websites – a popular tool in black hat circles.
Scripting Language – A high level language used to control what the user sees on a site or to manipulate the data stored on a server.
Search – Searching is the process of finding information on the Internet through using search engines.
Search Engine – A website that allows users to search the Web for specific information by entering keywords. Can include paid or organic listings of websites and sometimes specific images, products, videos, music, place entries or other enhanced results.
Search Engine Algorithm – Search engines rank webpages based on different sets of criteria: while they may attribute different values of importance to the criteria they tend to consider the same factors in general. The program which search engines use to judge these factors and rank webpages in their SERPs is called their ranking algorithm. Algorithms are regularly updated to combat spam and black hat tactics. As the algorithms change and put more or less importance on certain factors SEO’s do the same. Google’s change in algorithm is termed the Google Dance.
Search Engine Copywriting – The practice of writing content specifically designed for chosen key phrases. This enhances spiderability and results in higher rankings on SERPs.
Search Engine Listing – The listing of pages on the search engine results page (SERP).
Search Engine Optimisation – See SEO.
Search Engine Submission – Supplying a URL to the search engines to make them aware that the website and its pages actually exist and/or alerting them to updated content in the hopes of faster and more regular indexing. This is an old-school SEO technique and is no longer necessary.
Search Frequency (ORM) – Similar to an update, the Search Frequency is basically how often BrandsEye ORM scans the Internet looking for mentions of your brand, product or service.
Search Marketer – Whether in SEO, PPC or both, a Search Marketer uses search engines to sell products, channel traffic and heighten brand awareness.
Search Referrer – The URL that has been generated by a search function.
Search Term – Search terms are the words entered by the searcher. search engines will then look for these words in their index and return matching results. Also known as Search Query.
Search-Engine Marketing (SEM) – A phrase sometimes used in contrast with “SEO” to describe paid search activities, SEM may also more generally refer to the broad range of search-marketing activities, either paid or organic.
Search-Engine Optimization (SEO) – The process of using website analysis and copy/design/structural adjustments to ensure both the highest possible positioning on desired search-engine results pages and the best experience for a given site’s users.
Search-Engine Referral – This statistic represents a visitor who arrives at a website after clicking through a search-engine results listing.
Second Life – A 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.
Secondary Research – Collection of existing research data.
Security Protocols – An abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods.
Seed Audience – The initial audience from which viral growth starts.
Seeding – The process of initiating a viral campaign through strategic online placement.
Segmentation – Used to filter visitors into distinct characterised groups to analyse visits.
SEM – Search Engine Marketing. This is the process of getting a website to achieve top rankings for its chosen key phrases on SERPs. See SEO and Organic Search.
Sender Alias – The name that is chosen to appear in the sender or from field of an email.
Sender ID – A method used by major ISPs to confirm that emails do originate from the domain from where it claims to have been sent.
Sentiment (ORM) – During ORM, once you have mentions of your brand that are marked as relevant , you are required to attach a level of Sentiment to it. This is done on a scale of -5 to 5, where a Sentiment score which sits at -5 means anger towards the brand is expressed in the post and 5 means celebration and praise.
Sentiment Analysis (ORM) – BrandsEye ORM measures the distribution of sentiment contained in mentions and automatically plots the information on a graph, allowing you to understand how your consumers and the press feel about you, your brand and your products.
SEO – Search Engine Optimisation. The creation or tweaking of a website to increase the amount of traffic to it from search engines. The aim is to get the page to rank highly on SERPs.
SEO Analyst – The Search Engine Optimization Analyst knows the search industry inside out and is an expert at search volume research, search psychology and statistical data.
SERP – Search Engine Results Page. The page that shows the results for a search on a search engine. In terms of SEO, websites should aim to be the first result on the SERP.
Server – A computer that delivers information and software to other computers linked by a network.
Server-side – Transactions that take place on the server.
Session – A lasting connection between the user and a website.
SHARE – An action made by internet users to pass on any form of information (whether a photo, video, article etc) to their friends, followers and connections.
SHARING – One feature of social networking sites is that users can share links. If your website has an awesome page, a user may want to share it with all their friends. Most social networking sites have features that make this process very easy.
Shopping Cart – Online shopping software that allows you to add chosen product offerings on a site to your cart. You can add, delete and purchase the merchandise in your cart. Also known as shopping basket.
Shopping Search – A specialized type of search or dedicated search engine that indexes groups of products, prices and reviews for side-by-side comparison, especially helpful for shopping online.
Sig File – This is a signature file which is displayed at the end of an email. It often contains the senders name and full contact details. This short message will appear at the bottom of every email sent. It’s also sometimes called a business card.
Sig Quote – A signature quote that appears at the end of an email; it could be a quote or a call to action such as, “Sign up for Quirk’s eMarketing Newsletter.”
SIM – Stands for Subscriber Identity Module, the chip used in a phone to identify the number/account.
Single-page Visits – Visits to a site that only consist of the viewing of one page.
Site Architecture – The design and planning of websites involving the technical, aesthetic and functional elements.
Site Refinement – Improving a website design and functionality.
Sitemap – On a website, a page that links to every other page in the website and displays these links organised according to the information hierarchal structure.
SKYPE – A video chat program that is free to use. You can also use it for texting and leaving video and voice messages to other users.
SlideShare – A popular presentation- and document-sharing social network, especially useful for B2B marketing.
Smartphone – The handsets have advanced capabilities and allow users to add applications to their phones. They usually have a QWERTY keypad and include 3G and Wifi capabilities.
SMCS – Short Message Service Center, the platform for sending and receiving SMSs.
SMS – Short Messaging Service. SMSes are text messages that can be sent to mobile phones from the Internet or from other mobile devices.
SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocol for sending messages from one server to another.
Social Bookmarking – A Web based service to share Internet bookmarks. and Digg are examples of social bookmarking services.
Social Currency – A measure of a person’s power and influence within a defined social group.
Social Media – Refers to all online tools and places that are available for users to generate content and communicate through the Internet. These media include blogs, social networks, file-hosting sites and bookmarking sites, among others.
SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING – The act of pro-actively monitoring and tracking applicable social media activity.
Social Media Optimization – SMO. It’s a way to optimise websites so they can be more easily connected with online communities and community websites. It involves generating publicity through social media, online communities and community websites. It can perhaps be thought of as the love-child of SEO and social networking.
SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY (SMP) – A written document that outlines how employees should talk about work on social media as well as advising them on how to best use social media sites. This is written for the protection of the company and clarifies what employees can and cannot say.
Social Network – A site or community on the Internet where members can interact with one another and share content. This term is more or less used interchangeably with “social media” in reference to Internet marketing.
Soft Bounce – The failed delivery of an email due to a deviating reason like an overloaded mail box or a server failure.
Software – The programs on your PC, software is what makes the hardware work in the way you want it to. (word processors spreadsheets, databases etc).
Solaris – The operating system (OS) used on Sun Systems known for its robustness and scalability.
Sorting (ORM) – Sorting is the process of reading mentions and determining their relevancy to your brand for optimum ORM. The Sorting process allows for a mention to be marked as Relevant, Duplicate, Spam or Irrelevant. All interactions at this point, teach BrandsEye to assist with the sorting process by intelligently reducing irrelevant and spam.
Spam – In email marketing, this refers to any message that is deemed by users or email providers to be an unsolicited commercial offer. Also called “junk mail.”
SPAM/LINK SPAM – As the amount of links pointing to a website tell the search engine how popular it is and therefore how high up the website will be on the results page, some people attempt to create vast amounts of links to a website to try to increase its apparent popularity. There are several ways to do so, but they are all unethical. While spamming was useful in the past, search engines are getting better at distinguishing these unethical links and ignoring them. It may produce short term success nowadays, but the search engine will penalise websites that have many spam links to them in the long run.
SPF – Sender Policy Framework. An extension of SMTP that stops email spammers from forging the “From” fields in an email.
Sphinn – A niche social-bookmarking website for online marketers.
Spider – An automated program that scans or crawls web pages to gather information for search engines. Also called trawlers, crawlers and robots, or bots. Same as “crawler.”
Splash Page – This is a page at the entry to a site which is usually animated and contains some variation of the phrase ‘click here to enter this site’. These pages are considered detrimental to SEO.
Split Testing – Split testing begins with a hypothesis and tests this by randomly sending visitors to either option A or option B in a statistically equal manner. This is followed by measuring which has the best conversion rate.
Sponsored Advert – See Pay Per Click (PPC).
Sponsored Links – The paid search results on a SERP.
Squidoo – A popular UGC site that allows members to create easy-to-build, single-page websites (called “lenses”) featuring whatever topic they choose. Typically, marketers use these pages to aggregate other content from across the Web under a common theme.
Stakeholder – A person or organisation with an interest (a “stake”) in how a resource is managed.
Strategy – A set of ideas that outline how a product line or brand will achieve its objectives. This guides decisions on how to create, distribute, promote and price the product or service.
Streaming – Media playback directly from the internet.
Style Sheet – A design template used for defining the layout of multiple pages within a website, most commonly seen in the form of “CSS” (cascading style sheets).
Sub-brand Benchmarking (ORM) – This allows for the reputation of products, individuals, or competitors to be compared against one another providing real-time SWOT analysis.
Subject Line – The title of an email communication. As it is the first element of the communication that will be seen, it needs to attract attention and entice the user to open the email.
Submission – The process of registering a site with a search engine or Web directory. It does not guarantee inclusion, but can lead to it being reviewed or crawled. It offers no guarantee of ranking. The process can be done manually or by using commercial software packages.
Subscribing – The process of opting in to an email newsletter or adding an RSS feed to an aggregator (e.g. for reading blog updates).
Syndicate – Making content available for distribution among selected clients.
Systems Administrator – Like in most industries, these ‘techies’ keep the networks up and the bandwidth usage down.


Tactic – Specific details or parts of a strategy that will contribute to accomplishing a goal. Can be a method or an action.
Tag – A keyword (often in a string) which is attached to a blog post, tweet (see “hashtag”), social bookmark or media file. Tags help categorize content by subject. In social media, a tag indicates or labels what content is about. Since computers cannot understand text in the way humans can, tags can draw attention to certain aspects of a webpage or other online content for a WebCrawler to use, or for the websites own search system. For instance a user may tag a video with its relevant actors.
Targeting – Determining one’s niche marketing audience of individuals within a group.
Taxonomy – Classification and division into ordered categories, usually hierarchical. In social media, taxonomy can refer to the categorisation of content on the Internet.
Technorati – A leading blog search engine that aggregates blog content and scores blogs’ popularity or influence.
Text Emails – Text emails or plain text emails do not contain graphics or any kind of markup.
Third Party Cookie – Some websites store information in a small text file on your computer called a cookie. A third-party cookie either originates from, or is sent to, a website other than the one you are currently visiting. These third-party cookies can either be persistent, meaning they remain on the system after your session, or temporary, meaning they are removed from your system.
THREAD – A stream of conversations. For example, a list of comments on a blog post.
Title Tag – A form of meta-data used by search engines to categorize Web pages by title. Search-engine algorithms traditionally value title tags to determine/categorize page content.  The (preferably optimised) title text you select will appear in the top bar of a user’s browser when they view the web page. Title tags should be a brief and accurate description of the page’s content.
Tomcat – Tomcat is a server solution based on the Java Platform that supports the Servlet and JSP specifications. It is open source technology.
Toolbar – A row of buttons or icons – which can be horizontal or vertical – that allow the user to select certain desktop or software functions.
Touch Point – Every instance that the consumer comes into contact with a brand.
TrackBack – A mechanism used in a blog that shows a list of entries in other blogs that refer to a post on the first blog.
Tracking – Measuring the effectiveness of a campaign by collecting and evaluating statistics.
Tracking Codes – A piece of code that tracks a user’s interaction and movement through a website.
Traditional Media – Newspapers, magazines, television and publishing houses make up the realm of traditional media.
Traffic – This refers to the visitors that visit a website.
Traffic Manager – The brave employee who manages the internal work flow of an agency.
Transfer Rates – The speed at which data is transferred across a network.
TRENDING – An event or topic that is popular and is widely discussed online.
TROLL – Someone who has the intention to get an emotional response from others online. They generally post controversial, provocative & irrelevant messages for their own amusement. Their views do not necessarily reflect the ones they post about.
TUMBLR – A microblogging platform and social network that allows users to post images, text, video’s, links and quotes.
Tweet – A “tweet” is the special name for an entry made on the microblogging site, Twitter. Up to 140 characters long, tweets can consist of random status updates, news, commentary, or anything an individual wants to communicate to followers at that moment, including personal messages to other users or groups and links to external content (articles, photos, videos).
TWEET – A post made on Twitter. A tweet contains no more than 140 characters.
Tweetup – A take-off on “meet-up,” a Tweetup is a meeting organized for friends, fans and/or strangers on Twitter. Also known as a “Tweetchat,” it can be used in marketing for consumer engagement and brand awareness by building and educating large communities of people.
Twitter – A micro-blogging platform allowing individuals to communicate directly with their followers.
TWITTER – A social media website where users can post short messages, known as tweets (up to 140 characters) for anyone who is following them to see. It is sometimes known as microblogging as it is similar to blogging but with a strict limit to what can be posted. Companies and individuals can use them, and is a great way to draw attention to certain things, as well as maintain a social media presence. It has a political aspect to it as well; it was used to organise and track the Arab spring revolutions.
TWITTERSPHERE – The world in which Twitter exists. This is made up of everything that happens on Twitter.


UGC – User Generated Content also knows as CGM.
Unique Forwarders – This refers to the number of individuals who forwarded a specific email on to other users.
Unique Visitor – Also known as “absolute unique visitor,” this statistic represents visitors to a website that are counted once in a given time period despite the possibility of having made multiple visits. Determined by cookies, unique visitors are distinguished from regular visitor counts which would classify two or more visits from the same user as multiple visitors.
Unique Visitors – The number of individual people visiting the website at least once within a specific period of time. Each individual is only counted once.
UNIX – The most common operating system for servers on the Internet.
Update (ORM) – An update occurs every time BrandsEye searches the internet for mentions relating to particular phrases and keywords around your brand and updates your account with all new relevant mentions .
URI – Stands for Universal Resource Identifier – the technical term used for means to access a resource on the Internet. The term both designates a method to access the resource and which specific resource should be accessed.
URL – “Universal” or “uniform resource locator,” this string of letters and numbers separated by periods and slashes is unique for every Internet page. A page’s address must be written in this form in order to be found on the World Wide Web.
URL Rewriting – Presenting search-friendly URLs without question marks and rewriting them on the server in their standard format suitable for use in querying dynamic content.
Usability – Usability is a measure of how easy it is for a user to complete a desired task. Sites with excellent usability fare better than those that are difficult to use.
USER GENERATED CONTENT (UGC) – A term given to all user-created data such as blogs, comments, reviews, podcasts and more. Wikis (and Wikipedia) are examples of UGC.
User Sitemap – A page containing structured links to every other important page on a particular website grouped by topic or navigational hierarchy. These pages are equally useful for people and search-engine spiders alike, as they provide a categorized look at every page on a website at a glance (with hyperlinks).
USP – A marketing term meaning a Unique Selling Proposition or Point. This is what makes a product or service different. Quirk’s USP is that it is a holistic eMarketing service provider.
USSD – Stands for Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. Works on all existing GSM phones. Provides session-based communication, enabling a variety of applications.
UX – User Experience is a term used to describe the overarching experience a person has as a when interacting with a particular product or service, its delivery, and related artefacts, according to their design. The first requirement for exemplary UX is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without any fuss.


Vendor Relationship Management (VRM) – Vendor Relationship Management. The emerging school of thought that incorporates the tools, technology and services that make it easy for customers to manage relationships with vendors.
Vertical Search – A specialised or niche search. A search within a particular area of interest where the search database is highly refined for relevance to a particular subject.
Videocast – Also known as Vodcatsts or Vlogs. A video file which can be subscribed to via an RSS feed. Although the technology to achieve this has been available for a while, only recently has the bandwidth been available to make this a practical reality.
VIRAL – Certain bits of information are said to ‘go viral’. This means they spread from person to person very quickly, much like a virus. Memes can often spread like this.  A viral item can be made up of an image, video or text. The reason for it being shared can be news-related, amusing, shocking or other.
Viral Marketing – The spread of a message quickly across the Internet, largely by “word-of mouth”. It mimics a virus because of the speed at which is transferred and the number of people that it reaches. Viral Marketing is an effective form of marketing that yields a good ROI if successful.
Virus – A virus is a destructive program that is loaded onto your PC (hopefully without your knowledge). These little programs can delete or corrupt your files so save yourself the drama and get yourself a good anti-virus software package.
Visit Duration – The length of time in a session.
Visit or Session – An interaction by an individual with a website consisting of one or more page views within a specified period of time.
Visit Referrer – The URL that originated a particular visit.
Visitor – An individual visiting a website that is not a search engine spider or a script.
Vlog – A video based log, also called a video log.
VLOG – Much like a blog, but documented using video instead of written content.
VOIP – An acronym for “Voice Over Internet Protocol.” This technology allows a user to make phone calls (with potential video) via a computer with an Internet connection or a wireless-enabled mobile device. The most famous example of a VOIP provider is Skype.


W3C – World Wide Web Consortium. An organisation which oversees the Web Standards project.
WAP – Wireless Application Protocol. A technical set of communication standards for the way wireless devices (like cell phones) connect with the Internet.
WEB 2.0 – Several years ago the web was ‘one way’, meaning that users were only able to consume information; they did not contribute to the web themselves. Web 2.0 is the idea that users are now able to influence websites and send information to them. This is the underpinning of all online social media, from Youtube, where users upload videos, to Facebook, where entire lives are maintained online. Other, less dramatic Web 2.0 ideas may be the inclusion of a comment section on a news site. Web 2.0 is also a philosophy that the Internet should be used more as a public-access platform and less as a vehicle for traditional, one-way publishing. Related concepts include collaboration, crowdsourcing and the use of open-source software.
Web Analytics – Site analytics are essential to the success of any website – they provide you with information detailing how visitors are interacting with your site as well as how successful your supporting eMarketing techniques are on your site’s performance. Data for the analysis is mined using specialised software – we use ClickTracks! Site analytics provide you with a comprehensive and insightful analysis of your website as well as an insight into what needs to be done to ensure even greater success.
Web Application – Any application which is accessed by users through a browser and is run on a web server.
Web Browser – This is what allows you to browse the World Wide Web – examples of browsers include Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox (Quirk’s number 1 browser).
Web Design – The layout and structure of a web page. Web design is not solely about making the page look pretty, it’s also about functionality and usability.
Web Presence – Your web presence is determined on whether you have a webpage or site on the net. If you don’t you are an unknown force and are losing out!
Web Server – A remote third-party computer whose job it is to deal with requests coming from web browsers.
Web Standards – Best practices for building websites. The web standards are issued by the W3C.
WEBCRAWLER – (Sometimes called a bot, robot or spider) Search engines work by indexing all available webpages and scoring them based on a number of factors to gauge their trustworthiness or popularity. WebCrawlers are automatic routines that travel the web using links and carry out evaluations of each individual website. Google’s PageRank WebCrawler is possibly the most famous.
Webinar – A Web-based seminar containing audio and video, often in the form of a slide deck.
WebPR – Public relations on the web! Online press releases and article syndication promote brands as well as drives traffic to sites.
Wetpaint – A UGC website that combines aspects of wikis, blogs, forums and social networks, allowing any user to create and share online content.
White Hat – A term coined by the SEO industry to describe ethical SEO tactics – you’ll only find white hats at the QuirkStation. See Black Hat and Grey Hat.
White List – A list of accepted email addresses that an ISP, subscriber or other email service provider allows to deliver messages regardless of the spam filter’s settings.
Wide-Area Network – WAN. A network of computers that are relatively far apart and are connected via telephone lines or radio waves.
Widget – A window or a text box for user interaction. An area on a page hosted by a third party, generally used for a small application or syndicated content.
WiFi – The wireless technology which is the current standard protocol for networking and connecting to the Internet.
Wiki – A wiki is an online collaborative tool that allows numerous users to access and edit web page content freely and creatively. It supports links to websites, images and text and can be used for a host of functions, including project planning and document building. Refers to any page or collection of pages on the Internet or an intranet that can be easily edited by the public or a select group of registered visitors. Wikis are examples of collaboration. See “Wikipedia,” the most famous example of a wiki, below.
Wikipedia – A free, open-source, multilingual encyclopedia consisting of heavily edited user-generated content on topics of nearly every sort. The largest encyclopedia in the world, Wikipedia is administered by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit group. One defining characteristic of Wikipedia is its insistence on not publishing original research, but rather being an authoritative clearinghouse of citations of other material already published on the Web.
Word of Mouse – Another way of referring to online viral marketing and Word of Mouth.
Word-of-Mouth – Information that is passed between people, as opposed to messages from a company to people. See Viral Marketing.
WORDPRESS – An open source CMS which is used for blog publication. There are currently over 70 million WordPress sites in the world.
WordTracker – WordTracker is an online tool that helps web site owners and search engine marketers identify keywords and phrases that are relevant to their client’s business and likely to be used as queries by search engine visitors.
WWW – The World Wide Web is the complete collection of files written in various mark-up languages and freely available on the Internet.


XML – eXtensible Markup Language. A standard used for creating structured documents. XML promises more efficient and organised delivery of data over the internet. XHTML is the XML version of HTML.
XML Sitemap – An XML file for search engines containing a list of URLs on a particular domain. This file can be used to supplement regular indexing, where a bot/crawler goes out and visits each page of a site by itself.


Yahoo! – One of the most popular search engines on the net. Yahoo! began its life as the bookmark lists of two graduate students, David Filo and Jerry Yang. Their bookmark list just never seemed to stop growing, and today Yahoo! serves billions of page views worldwide.
Yahoo! Answers – An online question-and-answer community where anyone can ask a question on any topic and get immediate answers from real people, which are in turn rated or voted on. These types of communities are popular, and multiple websites follow a similar model of using the “wisdom of crowds” for answers. One example is the more exclusive, sophisticated version seen at Quora.
YouTube – The most popular video-hosting and video-sharing site, it is also currently the largest search engine after Google (incidentally, also owned by Google). Users can view, upload and comment on video content for no charge, though companies can pay for sponsored promotion of videos or to have enhanced branding and design capabilities on their profile pages, known as “channels.”


Zone-file – In computer networking, a zone file is a database element of the domain name system (DNS) used by BIND and other DNS server software. A zone file typically contains information that defines mappings between domain names and IP addresses and can also contain reverse mappings which can resolve IP addresses into domain names.


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